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1  Alternate cryptocurrencies / Announcements (Altcoins) / [MASS] Decentralized HARD DRIVE mining cryptocurrency | PoC | Low Energy cost on: March 05, 2020, 10:43:03 AM

The adoption of blockchain technology is a work in progress. There are details that have to be worked out; a fully secure and decentralized system needs to be built; scalability and performance must be optimized. Yet there is one major tension that must be resolved first: there needs to be a strong consensus mechanism.

Consensus is the basic infrastructure for all blockchain-based actions, contracts and applications — it’s blockchain’s Layer 0. In fact, the lack of a strong consensus layer has been a large contributing factor that’s inhibited Blockchain’s mainstream adoption. Proof-of-Work, currently the incumbent consensus mechanism, struggles with issues inherent to its design — energy waste, inequity, and increasingly centralized mining. If history is any guide, long-lasting systems need a stable base — MASS provides this strong basic infrastructure layer.

What is MASS?

MASS is a basic infrastructure layer that is capable of providing consensus services across any number of public chains. In order to create a sustainable and strong Layer 0, the MASS consensus engine uses MASS Proof-of-Capacity consensus protocol. Proof-of-Capacity establishes a consensus layer that is permissionless, fair, energy efficient, secure, and universal — ensuring the fundamental security of the public chain. Proof-of-Capacity is designed to preclude the use of ASICs: participants just need to have access to storage space (such as hard drive space on a basic laptop.)

MASS Net is the first public chain to make use of the MASS consensus engine (MASS is the store-of-value in circulation and the value anchor of the MASS consensus engine). The network is permissionless — with a level of security similar to the Nakamoto consensus protocol — nodes use storage capacity to run the consensus protocol. The network tends more towards decentralization compared to bitcoin, because competition for blocks does not require the use of prohibitively expensive computing resources. The MASS consensus engine is designed to enable participants to get a fair share of the value created — anyone can mine with commonplace hardware because only a small amount of computing resources is required. Furthermore, the network can support multiple blockchain instances in parallel.

MASS Net enables users to join a secure network and maintain it without the need for permission, and provides all participants a fair share of the value created.

MASS system features:

Secure : MASS Proof-of-Capacity protocol ensures the unforgeability of proofs by using the theory of Time-memory trade-off. This, along with the use of a verifiable random function, warrants that the MASS system has 51% Byzantine Fault Tolerance. Furthermore, a fork detection punishment scheme protects the main chain from Nothing-At-Stake attacks that could split the main chain.

Fair : MASS Proof-of-Capacity guarantees that a node's block generation probability is dependent only on the proof-of-effective-capacity provided by the node. In addition, the proof-of effective-capacity is storage medium independent, so that all nodes participating in the MASS network have similar marginal costs.

Energy efficient : MASS Proof-of-Capacity only requires computing resources when initializing storage capacity. When entering the block consensus phase storage capacity, data is only accessed at O(1) complexity a timetimes. Therefore, using MASS Proof-of-Capacity for block consensus does not require continuous power-input consumption. When the MASS system performs block consensus, the computing resources used are negligible, small enough to not affect the normal usage of a computer. When storage capacity is not participating in the MASS network, it can be reformatted and used for other purposes.

Universal : During the consensus process, the node only needs to perform an access query on the initialized capacity and does not perform any data operations on it. Therefore, the same storage space can provide capacity proofs for multiple blockchain consensus instances, and nodes using the MASS Proof-of-Capacity can simultaneously support multiple blockchain instances in parallel.

MASS White Paper:

•   Read more here

Development documents:


PoC algorithm: MASS consensus
Max supply: 206,438,400
Block reward: Halving
Block time: 45 seconds (3s/Slot)
Difficulty: Retargets at every block


•   MASS miner full node macOS:
•   MASS miner full node Windows:

Full Node Wallet

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•   MASS full node wallet Windows:

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Academic Research

What is Proof of Capacity(PoC)

Proof-of-Capacity (PoC) is a consensus mechanism based on providing a proof of storage space. In a PoC consensus algorithm, when a node submits a block to the network it must also provide a valid proof of capacity. It is very difficult for a node to generate a valid capacity proof without having the corresponding storage size, and the proof can be verified by any node in the network. If both the block data and the proof are valid, the block will be accepted by the rest of the network. The basic principle behind how a proof is provided is as follows: during the initialisation phase, a series of data is generated according to the protocol and is saved in the storage device capacity. When the a new block is to be generated, a part of this stored data is revealed retrieved based on the value of a random number. This data part is then used to generate a proof and the node is able to compete for the next block.

The MASS PoC protocol and bitcoin’s Nakamoto consensus protocol can both be described with a unified mathematical model. F(∙) is a one-way permutation function for space |N|_x to space |N|_y. The verifier takes a value y from space |N|_y, and within a certain period of time, the prover must submit give a corresponding value x for in space |N|_x within a certain period of time so that where F(x)=y. The Nakamoto consensus protocol uses an exhaustive brute-force search method to calculate y values with F(∙) by iterating all possible x value in order to find the right x when a collision of y happens, making multiple requests on the function to find the corresponding y value and thereby confirm the value of x. On the other hand, the MASS PoC protocol uses a look-up table method, first performing an offline analysis and recording all the x values that correspond with y, and then when solving for y simply looking up the corresponding x value when finding a y. Despite the difference in methods, in terms of security the MASS and Nakamoto consensus protocols are very similar within regards to algorithm security.

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