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July 19, 2018, 08:12:30 PM *
News: Latest stable version of Bitcoin Core: 0.16.1  [Torrent]. (New!)
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1  Bitcoin / Development & Technical Discussion / MOVED: DASH CLONE GUIDE + COMPILING ERROR on: July 15, 2018, 05:13:29 AM
This topic has been moved to Trashcan.

2  Bitcoin / Bitcoin Technical Support / MOVED: P2PUBKEY in witness program on: July 03, 2018, 11:59:46 PM
This topic has been moved to Trashcan.

Duplicate thread
3  Bitcoin / Development & Technical Discussion / Alert Keys and Alert System Vulnerabilities Disclosure on: July 02, 2018, 11:15:02 PM
The bitcoin alert keys are disclosed in this post, followed by a description of the purpose of this information and its history. The bitcoin alert system has been completely retired. The network is not at risk and this warning may be safely ignored if you do not have an ancient node (running v0.12.x or older) using the deprecated bitcoin alert system or its public keys.

mainnet public key: 04fc9702847840aaf195de8442ebecedf5b095cdbb9bc716bda9110971b28a49e0ead8564ff0db2 2209e0374782c093bb899692d524e9d6a6956e7c5ecbcd68284

mainnet private key: 30820113020101042053cdc1e0cfac07f7e1c312768886f4635f6bceebec0887f63a9d37a26a92e 6b6a081a53081a2020101302c06072a8648ce3d0101022100ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffffefffffc2f300604010004010704410479be667ef9dcbbac55a0629 5ce870b07029bfcdb2dce28d959f2815b16f81798483ada7726a3c4655da4fbfc0e1108a8fd17b4 48a68554199c47d08ffb10d4b8022100fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffebaaedce6af48a03 bbfd25e8cd0364141020101a14403420004fc9702847840aaf195de8442ebecedf5b095cdbb9bc7 16bda9110971b28a49e0ead8564ff0db22209e0374782c093bb899692d524e9d6a6956e7c5ecbcd 68284

testnet public key: 04302390343f91cc401d56d68b123028bf52e5fca1939df127f63c6467cdf9c8e2c14b61104cf81 7d0b780da337893ecc4aaff1309e536162dabbdb45200ca2b0a

testnet private key: 308201130201010420474d447aa6f46b4f45f67f21180a5de2722fc807401c4c4d95fdae64b3d6c 294a081a53081a2020101302c06072a8648ce3d0101022100ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffffefffffc2f300604010004010704410479be667ef9dcbbac55a0629 5ce870b07029bfcdb2dce28d959f2815b16f81798483ada7726a3c4655da4fbfc0e1108a8fd17b4 48a68554199c47d08ffb10d4b8022100fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffebaaedce6af48a03 bbfd25e8cd0364141020101a14403420004302390343f91cc401d56d68b123028bf52e5fca1939d f127f63c6467cdf9c8e2c14b61104cf817d0b780da337893ecc4aaff1309e536162dabbdb45200c a2b0a

These are openssl-serialized private keys.

In 2016, a plan was proposed for the completion of the retirement of the bitcoin alert system which included the idea of revealing the alert system private keys. The proposal still contains good information regarding the purpose and intention of alert system retirement and motivation for the disclosure of the private keys. Additionally, an overview of the alert system retirement and its timeline is available on the web. This disclosure was recently discussed in an IRC meeting. A media site also recently discussed this topic.

One of the reasons for disclosure of the keys is to mitigate the effects of unknown dissemination and proliferation of the keys. By broadcasting the values to make them available to everyone, the value
of the keys is intended to be to be eliminated, since now everyone could feasibly sign messages, the value of the signed messages becomes zero.

Vulnerabilities in the Bitcoin Alert system


The Alert System previously utilized by Bitcoin has several issues (some of which may be classified as vulnerabilities). These issues no longer exist in Bitcoin as of network protocol version 700013 which was released with Bitcoin Core 0.13.0. Many altcoins and Bitcoin client implementations were notified of the Alert System's removal and have since removed the alert system themselves or transitioned to using an Alert system that does not share an Alert Key with Bitcoin.

All of the issues described below allow an attacker in possession of the Alert Key to perform a Denial of Service attack on nodes that still support the Alert system. These issues involve the exhaustion of memory which causes node software to crash or be killed due to excessive memory usage.

Many of these issues were not known until the Alert System was removed as developers inspected the code for vulnerabilities prior to releasing the Alert Key. Due to these issues, the publication of the Alert Key was delayed and affected altcoins and software were notified.

As of this writing, less than 4% of Bitcoin nodes are vulnerable. Furthermore, the Bitcoin Core developers have created a "final alert" which is a maximum ID number alert which overrides all previous alerts and displays a fixed "URGENT: Alert key compromised, upgrade required" message on all vulnerable software. The Bitcoin Core developers believe that so few vulnerable nodes are present on the network, and risks to those nodes so minor, that it is safe to publish the Alert Key.

An Alert contains these fields:

int32_t nVersion;
int64_t nRelayUntil;      // when newer nodes stop relaying to newer nodes
int64_t nExpiration;
int32_t nID;
int32_t nCancel;
std::set<int32_t> setCancel;
int32_t nMinVer;            // lowest version inclusive
int32_t nMaxVer;            // highest version inclusive
std::set<std::string> setSubVer;  // empty matches all
int32_t nPriority;

Alerts are also identified by their SHA256 hash. The above fields can be freely modified to generate alerts with differing hashes.

Infinitely Sized Map (CVE-2016-10724)

The Alert System was designed to support multiple Alerts simultaneously. As such, Alerts were stored in memory in a map. However, there is no limit on how large this map can be, thus an attacker with the Alert Key can send a large number of Alerts to a node. Eventually, the map containing all of the Alerts will be so large that the node runs out of memory and crashes, thus causing a Denial of Service attack.

The infinitely sized map is the basis for which the Alert system can be used to cause Denial of Service attacks.

Infinitely Sized Alerts

Although the infinitely sized map is what causes the crash itself, an attacker can also send very large Alerts. Alerts themselves are not limited in size explicitly, they are only limited by the maximum network message size. This maximum network message size has varied between versions. At times in the past, it has been 32 MB. For Bitcoin Core 0.12.0 (the most recent version of Bitcoin Core with the alert system enabled by default), the maximum message size is 2 MB.

Although large Alerts do not directly cause a Denial of Service by themselves, combined with the infinitely sized map, large Alerts can more quickly cause a node to run out of memory.

* The `setCancel` field has no length limit (besides the maximum message size) and is a std::set of 32-bit integers. Given that it has no size constraints, an attacker can use this field to create a very large Alert by filling the set with many integers.
* The `setSubVer` field, like `setCancel`, has no length limit and is a std::set. However instead of integers it has std::strings. These strings do not have a length limit themselves and can thus be arbitrarily long to produce an Alert that is arbitrarily large.
* Bitcoin Core versions prior to 0.10.0 did not have a limit on the length of the `strComment`, `strStatusBar`, and `strReserved` fields. These strings can have an arbitrary length.

The Final Alert

To protect against attackers abusing the Alert key following its publication, the Bitcoin Core developers constructed a "final alert". This final alert is a maximum ID alert which overrides all previous alerts. All Bitcoin Core versions since and including Bitcoin Core 0.14.0 contain the final alert and will send it to any node which is vulnerable. However this protection is not enough to protect those nodes as a few issues were found with the final alert itself.

Final alerts are those which meet the following conditions:

nExpiration == maxInt &&
nCancel == (maxInt-1) &&
nMinVer == 0 &&
nMaxVer == maxInt &&
setSubVer.empty() &&
nPriority == maxInt &&
strStatusBar == "URGENT: Alert key compromised, upgrade required"

`maxInt` is the maximum signed integer as defined by `std::numeric_limits<int>::max()`.

Multiple Final Alerts

The definition for a final alert does not include a few fields. Because alerts are identified by their hashes, changing the ommitted fields allows an Alert to be classified as a final alert but still be an alert that is added to the infinitely sized map.

- Since `setCancel` is not required to be empty for an alert to be a final alert, the `setCancel` field can contain different integers to produce alerts that have different hashes and are thus different alerts. Combined with the infinitely sized map and the infinitely sized `setCancel` issues, many final alerts can be created which are large, fill the map, and cause a node to run out of memory.
- The `strComment` field, while having a maximum length of 65536 bytes, is not required to be a particular string in order for an alert to be a final alert. Thus multiple final alerts can be crafted which have different hashes by using different values for `strComment`
- The`strReserved` field, while having a maximum length of 256 bytes, is not required to be a particular string in order for an alert to be a final alert. Thus multiple final alerts can be crafted which have different hashes by using different values for `strReserved`.
- The `nVersion` field is also not required to be a particular value. Thus this can be used to construct final alerts with different hashes by having different values for `nVersion`.
- `nRelayUntil` field is also not required to be a particular value. Thus this can be used to construct final alerts with different hashes by having different values for `nRelayUntil`.

Final Alert Cancellation (CVE-2016-10725)
Although the final alert is supposed to be uncancellable, it unfortunately is cancellable due to the order of actions when processing an alert. Alerts are first processed by checking whether they cancel any existing alert. Then they are checked whether any of the remaining alerts cancels it. Because of this order, it is possible to create an alert which cancels a final alert before the node checks whether that alert is canceled by the final alert. Thus an attacker can cancel a final alert with another alert allowing a node to be vulnerable to all of the aforementioned attacks.

Protecting Against DoS Attacks from the Alert System

Fixing these issues is relatively easy. The first and most obvious solution is to simply remove the Alert system entirely. As nodes upgrade to versions without the Alert system, fewer nodes will be vulnerable to attack should the Alert keys become public. This is the option that Bitcoin has taken. However, because Bitcoin has retired the Alert system entirely, the Alert key will also be published to reduce the risk that the Alert Key is mistakenly depended upon in the future.

Should altcoins wish to continue using the Alert system but with a different Alert Key, a few very simple fixes will safeguard nodes from the aforementioned issues. Limiting the number of alerts, the size of `setCancel` and `setSubVer`, and only allowing one final alert altogether fix the above issues. This patch, on top of Bitcoin Core 0.11 (a vulnerable version), fixes the aforementioned issues. Altcoins that still use the Alert system are recommended to port this patch to their software. Outdated node software is still vulnerable.

This disclosure was authored primarily by Bryan Bishop (kanzure) and Andrew Chow (achow101). Special thanks to reviewers. Also, a interesting proposal was floated to not disclose the private keys in WIF format-- one is that this is not how the original values were received, and second (more importantly) to prevent users from importing the key into their wallet and reusing it in their wallet key circulation.

4  Bitcoin / Bitcoin Discussion / Bitcoin Core 0.16.1 Released on: June 15, 2018, 05:30:03 PM
Bitcoin Core version 0.16.1 is now available from:


This is a new minor version release, including new features, various bugfixes
and performance improvements, as well as updated translations.

Please report bugs using the issue tracker at GitHub:


To receive security and update notifications, please subscribe to:


How to Upgrade

If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely
shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), then run the
installer (on Windows) or just copy over `/Applications/Bitcoin-Qt` (on Mac)
or `bitcoind`/`bitcoin-qt` (on Linux).

The first time you run version 0.15.0 or newer, your chainstate database will be converted to a
new format, which will take anywhere from a few minutes to half an hour,
depending on the speed of your machine.

Note that the block database format also changed in version 0.8.0 and there is no
automatic upgrade code from before version 0.8 to version 0.15.0 or higher. Upgrading
directly from 0.7.x and earlier without re-downloading the blockchain is not supported.
However, as usual, old wallet versions are still supported.

Downgrading warning

Wallets created in 0.16 and later are not compatible with versions prior to 0.16
and will not work if you try to use newly created wallets in older versions. Existing
wallets that were created with older versions are not affected by this.


Bitcoin Core is extensively tested on multiple operating systems using
the Linux kernel, macOS 10.8+, and Windows Vista and later. Windows XP is not supported.

Bitcoin Core should also work on most other Unix-like systems but is not
frequently tested on them.

Notable changes

Miner block size removed

The `-blockmaxsize` option for miners to limit their blocks' sizes was
deprecated in version 0.15.1, and has now been removed. Miners should use the
`-blockmaxweight` option if they want to limit the weight of their blocks'

0.16.1 change log

### Policy
- #11423 `d353dd1` [Policy] Several transaction standardness rules (jl2012)

### Mining
- #12756 `e802c22` [config] Remove blockmaxsize option (jnewbery)

### Block and transaction handling
- #13199 `c71e535` Bugfix: ensure consistency of m_failed_blocks after reconsiderblock (sdaftuar)
- #13023 `bb79aaf` Fix some concurrency issues in ActivateBestChain() (skeees)

### P2P protocol and network code
- #12626 `f60e84d` Limit the number of IPs addrman learns from each DNS seeder (EthanHeilman)

### Wallet
- #13265 `5d8de76` Exit SyncMetaData if there are no transactions to sync (laanwj)
- #13030 `5ff571e` Fix zapwallettxes/multiwallet interaction. (jnewbery)

### GUI
- #12999 `1720eb3` Show the Window when double clicking the taskbar icon (ken2812221)
- #12650 `f118a7a` Fix issue: "default port not shown correctly in settings dialog" (251Labs)
- #13251 `ea487f9` Rephrase Bech32 checkbox texts, and enable it with legacy address default (fanquake)

### Build system
- #12474 `b0f692f` Allow depends system to support armv7l (hkjn)
- #12585 `72a3290` depends: Switch to downloading expat from GitHub (fanquake)
- #12648 `46ca8f3` test: Update trusted git root (MarcoFalke)
- #11995 `686cb86` depends: Fix Qt build with Xcode 9 (fanquake)
- #12636 `845838c` backport: #11995 Fix Qt build with Xcode 9 (fanquake)
- #12946 `e055bc0` depends: Fix Qt build with XCode 9.3 (fanquake)
- #12998 `7847b92` Default to defining endian-conversion DECLs in compat w/o config (TheBlueMatt)

### Tests and QA
- #12447 `01f931b` Add missing signal.h header (laanwj)
- #12545 `1286f3e` Use wait_until to ensure ping goes out (Empact)
- #12804 `4bdb0ce` Fix intermittent failure. (jnewbery)
- #12553 `0e98f96` Prefer wait_until over polling with time.sleep (Empact)
- #12486 `cfebd40` Round target fee to 8 decimals in assert_fee_amount (kallewoof)
- #12843 `df38b13` Test starting bitcoind with -h and -version (jnewbery)
- #12475 `41c29f6` Fix python TypeError in (MarcoFalke)
- #12638 `0a76ed2` Cache only chain and wallet for regtest datadir (MarcoFalke)
- #12902 `7460945` Handle potential cookie race when starting node (sdaftuar)
- #12904 `6c26df0` Ensure bitcoind processes are cleaned up when tests end (sdaftuar)
- #13049 `9ea62a3` Backports (MarcoFalke)
- #13201 `b8aacd6` Handle disconnect_node race (sdaftuar)

### Miscellaneous
- #12518 `a17fecf` Bump leveldb subtree (MarcoFalke)
- #12442 `f3b8d85` devtools: Exclude patches from lint-whitespace (MarcoFalke)
- #12988 `acdf433` Hold cs_main while calling UpdatedBlockTip() signal (skeees)
- #12985 `0684cf9` Windows: Avoid launching as admin when NSIS installer ends. (JeremyRand)

### Documentation
- #12637 `60086dd` backport: #12556 fix version typo in getpeerinfo RPC call help (fanquake)
- #13184 `4087dd0` RPC Docs: `gettxout*`: clarify bestblock and unspent counts (harding)
- #13246 `6de7543` Bump to Ubuntu Bionic 18.04 in (ken2812221)
- #12556 `e730b82` Fix version typo in getpeerinfo RPC call help (tamasblummer)


Thanks to everyone who directly contributed to this release:

- 251
- Ben Woosley
- Chun Kuan Lee
- David A. Harding
- e0
- fanquake
- Henrik Jonsson
- JeremyRand
- Jesse Cohen
- John Newbery
- Johnson Lau
- Karl-Johan Alm
- Luke Dashjr
- MarcoFalke
- Matt Corallo
- Pieter Wuille
- Suhas Daftuar
- Tamas Blummer
- Wladimir J. van der Laan

As well as everyone that helped translating on [Transifex](

Note this thread will be self-moderated to keep out the spam that usually appears in these release announcement threads.
5  Bitcoin / Bitcoin Technical Support / MOVED: Offline Bitcoin Transactions with Short Message Authentication Protocol on: June 14, 2018, 01:46:09 AM
This topic has been moved to Trashcan.

Duplicate thread
6  Bitcoin / Development & Technical Discussion / MOVED: My IP address is showing on Lightning Network Explorer Testnet need help on: May 27, 2018, 02:27:51 PM
This topic has been moved to Trashcan.

7  Bitcoin / Development & Technical Discussion / MOVED: Do we really have financial privacy and anonymity? on: May 03, 2018, 03:03:26 PM
This topic has been moved to Bitcoin Discussion.
8  Bitcoin / Development & Technical Discussion / MOVED: 4th Generation Relational Blockchain - What does that actually mean? Multiversum on: May 02, 2018, 06:28:40 PM
This topic has been moved to Altcoin Discussion.
9  Bitcoin / Bitcoin Technical Support / MOVED: ... on: April 26, 2018, 10:07:12 PM
This topic has been moved to Trashcan.

Trashed on request
10  Bitcoin / Development & Technical Discussion / MOVED: atomic coin forked on: April 22, 2018, 04:20:33 PM
This topic has been moved to Trashcan.

11  Bitcoin / Development & Technical Discussion / MOVED: Error while compiling the daemon (Cryptonote) on: April 17, 2018, 06:18:59 PM
This topic has been moved to Trashcan.

12  Bitcoin / Bitcoin Technical Support / MOVED: mycelium wallet problems after phone backup on: April 02, 2018, 08:09:00 PM
This topic has been moved to Trashcan.

13  Bitcoin / Bitcoin Technical Support / MOVED: Crack this hash- win 2 Bitcoins! on: March 21, 2018, 05:00:44 PM
This topic has been moved to Trashcan.

14  Bitcoin / Bitcoin Technical Support / MOVED: CEX.IO SCAM? or Any suggestion?? on: March 07, 2018, 04:44:33 AM
This topic has been moved to Trashcan.

15  Bitcoin / Bitcoin Discussion / Bitcoin Core 0.16.0 Released on: February 26, 2018, 03:41:39 PM
Bitcoin Core version 0.16.0 is now available from:

This is a new major version release, including new features, various bugfixes
and performance improvements, as well as updated translations.

Please report bugs using the issue tracker at GitHub:

To receive security and update notifications, please subscribe to:

How to Upgrade

If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely
shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), then run the
installer (on Windows) or just copy over `/Applications/Bitcoin-Qt` (on Mac)
or `bitcoind`/`bitcoin-qt` (on Linux).

The first time you run version 0.15.0 or newer, your chainstate database will be converted to a
new format, which will take anywhere from a few minutes to half an hour,
depending on the speed of your machine.

Note that the block database format also changed in version 0.8.0 and there is no
automatic upgrade code from before version 0.8 to version 0.15.0 or higher. Upgrading
directly from 0.7.x and earlier without re-downloading the blockchain is not supported.
However, as usual, old wallet versions are still supported.

Downgrading warning

Wallets created in 0.16 and later are not compatible with versions prior to 0.16
and will not work if you try to use newly created wallets in older versions. Existing
wallets that were created with older versions are not affected by this.


Bitcoin Core is extensively tested on multiple operating systems using
the Linux kernel, macOS 10.8+, and Windows Vista and later. Windows XP is not supported.

Bitcoin Core should also work on most other Unix-like systems but is not
frequently tested on them.

Notable changes

Wallet changes

### Segwit Wallet

Bitcoin Core 0.16.0 introduces full support for segwit in the wallet and user interfaces. A new `-addresstype` argument has been added, which supports `legacy`, `p2sh-segwit` (default), and `bech32` addresses. It controls what kind of addresses are produced by `getnewaddress`, `getaccountaddress`, and `createmultisigaddress`. A `-changetype` argument has also been added, with the same options, and by default equal to `-addresstype`, to control which kind of change is used.

A new `address_type` parameter has been added to the `getnewaddress` and `addmultisigaddress` RPCs to specify which type of address to generate.
A `change_type` argument has been added to the `fundrawtransaction` RPC to override the `-changetype` argument for specific transactions.

- All segwit addresses created through `getnewaddress` or `*multisig` RPCs explicitly get their redeemscripts added to the wallet file. This means that downgrading after creating a segwit address will work, as long as the wallet file is up to date.
- All segwit keys in the wallet get an implicit redeemscript added, without it being written to the file. This means recovery of an old backup will work, as long as you use new software.
- All keypool keys that are seen used in transactions explicitly get their redeemscripts added to the wallet files. This means that downgrading after recovering from a backup that includes a segwit address will work

Note that some RPCs do not yet support segwit addresses. Notably, `signmessage`/`verifymessage` doesn't support segwit addresses, nor does `importmulti` at this time. Support for segwit in those RPCs will continue to be added in future versions.

P2WPKH change outputs are now used by default if any destination in the transaction is a P2WPKH or P2WSH output. This is done to ensure the change output is as indistinguishable from the other outputs as possible in either case.

### BIP173 (Bech32) Address support ("bc1..." addresses)

Full support for native segwit addresses (BIP173 / Bech32) has now been added.
This includes the ability to send to BIP173 addresses (including non-v0 ones), and generating these
addresses (including as default new addresses, see above).

A checkbox has been added to the GUI to select whether a Bech32 address or P2SH-wrapped address should be generated when using segwit addresses. When launched with `-addresstype=bech32` it is checked by default. When launched with `-addresstype=legacy` it is unchecked and disabled.

### HD-wallets by default

Due to a backward-incompatible change in the wallet database, wallets created
with version 0.16.0 will be rejected by previous versions. Also, version 0.16.0
will only create hierarchical deterministic (HD) wallets. Note that this only applies
to new wallets; wallets made with previous versions will not be upgraded to be HD.

### Replace-By-Fee by default in GUI

The send screen now uses BIP125 RBF by default, regardless of `-walletrbf`.
There is a checkbox to mark the transaction as final.

The RPC default remains unchanged: to use RBF, launch with `-walletrbf=1` or
use the `replaceable` argument for individual transactions.

### Wallets directory configuration (`-walletdir`)

Bitcoin Core now has more flexibility in where the wallets directory can be
located. Previously wallet database files were stored at the top level of the
bitcoin data directory. The behavior is now:

- For new installations (where the data directory doesn't already exist),
  wallets will now be stored in a new `wallets/` subdirectory inside the data
  directory by default.
- For existing nodes (where the data directory already exists), wallets will be
  stored in the data directory root by default. If a `wallets/` subdirectory
  already exists in the data directory root, then wallets will be stored in the
  `wallets/` subdirectory by default.
- The location of the wallets directory can be overridden by specifying a
  `-walletdir=<path>` option where `<path>` can be an absolute path to a
  directory or directory symlink.

Care should be taken when choosing the wallets directory location, as if it
becomes unavailable during operation, funds may be lost.

Build: Minimum GCC bumped to 4.8.x
The minimum version of the GCC compiler required to compile Bitcoin Core is now 4.8. No effort will be
made to support older versions of GCC. See discussion in issue #11732 for more information.
The minimum version for the Clang compiler is still 3.3. Other minimum dependency versions can be found in `doc/` in the repository.

Support for signalling pruned nodes (BIP159)
Pruned nodes can now signal BIP159's NODE_NETWORK_LIMITED using service bits, in preparation for
full BIP159 support in later versions. This would allow pruned nodes to serve the most recent blocks. However, the current change does not yet include support for connecting to these pruned peers.

Performance: SHA256 assembly enabled by default
The SHA256 hashing optimizations for architectures supporting SSE4, which lead to ~50% speedups in SHA256 on supported hardware (~5% faster synchronization and block validation), have now been enabled by default. In previous versions they were enabled using the `--enable-experimental-asm` flag when building, but are now the default and no longer deemed experimental.

GUI changes
- Uses of "µBTC" in the GUI now also show the more colloquial term "bits", specified in BIP176.
- The option to reuse a previous address has now been removed. This was justified by the need to "resend" an invoice, but now that we have the request history, that need should be gone.
- Support for searching by TXID has been added, rather than just address and label.
- A "Use available balance" option has been added to the send coins dialog, to add the remaining available wallet balance to a transaction output.
- A toggle for unblinding the password fields on the password dialog has been added.

RPC changes

### New `rescanblockchain` RPC

A new RPC `rescanblockchain` has been added to manually invoke a blockchain rescan.
The RPC supports start and end-height arguments for the rescan, and can be used in a
multiwallet environment to rescan the blockchain at runtime.

### New `savemempool` RPC
A new `savemempool` RPC has been added which allows the current mempool to be saved to
disk at any time to avoid it being lost due to crashes / power loss.

### Safe mode disabled by default

Safe mode is now disabled by default and must be manually enabled (with `-disablesafemode=0`) if you wish to use it. Safe mode is a feature that disables a subset of RPC calls - mostly related to the wallet and sending - automatically in case certain problem conditions with the network are detected. However, developers have come to regard these checks as not reliable enough to act on automatically. Even with safe mode disabled, they will still cause warnings in the `warnings` field of the `getneworkinfo` RPC and launch the `-alertnotify` command.

### Renamed script for creating JSON-RPC credentials

The `share/rpcuser/` script was renamed to `share/rpcauth/`. This script can be
used to create `rpcauth` credentials for a JSON-RPC user.

### Validateaddress improvements

The `validateaddress` RPC output has been extended with a few new fields, and support for segwit addresses (both P2SH and Bech32). Specifically:
* A new field `iswitness` is True for P2WPKH and P2WSH addresses ("bc1..." addresses), but not for P2SH-wrapped segwit addresses (see below).
* The existing field `isscript` will now also report True for P2WSH addresses.
* A new field `embedded` is present for all script addresses where the script is known and matches something that can be interpreted as a known address. This is particularly true for P2SH-P2WPKH and P2SH-P2WSH addresses. The value for `embedded` includes much of the information `validateaddress` would report if invoked directly on the embedded address.
* For multisig scripts a new `pubkeys` field was added that reports the full public keys involved in the script (if known). This is a replacement for the existing `addresses` field (which reports the same information but encoded as P2PKH addresses), represented in a more useful and less confusing way. The `addresses` field remains present for non-segwit addresses for backward compatibility.
* For all single-key addresses with known key (even when wrapped in P2SH or P2WSH), the `pubkey` field will be present. In particular, this means that invoking `validateaddress` on the output of `getnewaddress` will always report the `pubkey`, even when the address type is P2SH-P2WPKH.

### Low-level changes

- The deprecated RPC `getinfo` was removed. It is recommended that the more specific RPCs are used:
  * `getblockchaininfo`
  * `getnetworkinfo`
  * `getwalletinfo`
  * `getmininginfo`
- The wallet RPC `getreceivedbyaddress` will return an error if called with an address not in the wallet.
- The wallet RPC `addwitnessaddress` was deprecated and will be removed in version 0.17,
  set the `address_type` argument of `getnewaddress`, or option `-addresstype=[bech32|p2sh-segwit]` instead.
- `dumpwallet` now includes hex-encoded scripts from the wallet in the dumpfile, and
  `importwallet` now imports these scripts, but corresponding addresses may not be added
  correctly or a manual rescan may be required to find relevant transactions.
- The RPC `getblockchaininfo` now includes an `errors` field.
- A new `blockhash` parameter has been added to the `getrawtransaction` RPC which allows for a raw transaction to be fetched from a specific block if known, even without `-txindex` enabled.
- The `decoderawtransaction` and `fundrawtransaction` RPCs now have optional `iswitness` parameters to override the
  heuristic witness checks if necessary.
- The `walletpassphrase` timeout is now clamped to 2^30 seconds.
- Using addresses with the `createmultisig` RPC is now deprecated, and will be removed in a later version. Public keys should be used instead.
- Blockchain rescans now no longer lock the wallet for the entire rescan process, so other RPCs can now be used at the same time (although results of balances / transactions may be incorrect or incomplete until the rescan is complete).
- The `logging` RPC has now been made public rather than hidden.
- An `initialblockdownload` boolean has been added to the `getblockchaininfo` RPC to indicate whether the node is currently in IBD or not.
- `minrelaytxfee` is now included in the output of `getmempoolinfo`

Other changed command-line options
- `-debuglogfile=<file>` can be used to specify an alternative debug logging file.
- bitcoin-cli now has an `-stdinrpcpass` option to allow the RPC password to be read from standard input.
- The `-usehd` option has been removed.
- bitcoin-cli now supports a new `-getinfo` flag which returns an output like that of the now-removed `getinfo` RPC.

Testing changes
- The default regtest JSON-RPC port has been changed to 18443 to avoid conflict with testnet's default of 18332.
- Segwit is now always active in regtest mode by default. Thus, if you upgrade a regtest node you will need to either -reindex or use the old rules by adding `vbparams=segwit:0:999999999999` to your regtest bitcoin.conf. Failure to do this will result in a CheckBlockIndex() assertion failure that will look like: Assertion `(pindexFirstNeverProcessed != nullptr) == (pindex->nChainTx == 0)' failed.

0.16.0 change log

### Block and transaction handling
- #10953 `aeed345` Combine scriptPubKey and amount as CTxOut in CScriptCheck (jl2012)
- #11309 `93d20a7` Minor cleanups for AcceptToMemoryPool (morcos)
- #11418 `38c201f` Add error string for CLEANSTACK script violation (maaku)
- #11411 `339da9c` Change SignatureHash input index check to an assert (jimpo)
- #11406 `e12522d` Add state message print to AcceptBlock failure message (TheBlueMatt)
- #11062 `26fee4f` Mark mempool import fails that were found in mempool as 'already there' (kallewoof)
- #11269 `61fb806` CTxMemPoolEntry::UpdateAncestorState: modifySiagOps param type (donaloconnor)
- #11747 `e970396` Fix: Open files read only if requested (Elbandi)
- #11737 `46d1ebf` Document partial validation in ConnectBlock() (sdaftuar)
- #10699 `c090262` Make all script validation flags backward compatible (sipa)
- #10279 `214046f` Add a CChainState class to validation.cpp to take another step towards clarifying internal interfaces (TheBlueMatt)
- #11824 `d9fdac1` Block ActivateBestChain to empty validationinterface queue (TheBlueMatt)
- #12127 `9501dc2` Remove unused mempool index (sdaftuar)
- #12118 `44080a9` Sort mempool by min(feerate, ancestor_feerate) (sdaftuar)
- #8498 `0e3a411` Minimize the number of times it is checked that no money... (jtimon)
- #12368 `3f5012b` Hold mempool.cs for the duration of ATMP (TheBlueMatt)
- #12401 `d44cd7e` Reset pblocktree before deleting LevelDB file (Sjors)
- #12415 `f893824` Interrupt loading thread after shutdown request (promag)

### P2P protocol and network code
- #10596 `6866b49` Add vConnect to CConnman::Options (benma)
- #10663 `9d31ed2` Split resolve out of connect (theuni)
- #11113 `fef65c4` Ignore getheaders requests for very old side blocks (jimpo)
- #11585 `5aeaa9c` addrman: Add missing lock in Clear() (CAddrMan) (practicalswift)
- #11524 `5ef3b69` De-duplicate connection eviction logic (tjps)
- #11580 `1f4375f` Do not send (potentially) invalid headers in response to getheaders (TheBlueMatt)
- #11655 `aca77a4` Assert state.m_chain_sync.m_work_header in ConsiderEviction (practicalswift)
- #11744 `3ff6ff5` Add missing locks in net.{cpp,h} (practicalswift)
- #11740 `59d3dc8` Implement BIP159 NODE_NETWORK_LIMITED (pruned peers) *signaling only* (jonasschnelli)
- #11583 `37ffa16` Do not make it trivial for inbound peers to generate log entries (TheBlueMatt)
- #11363 `ba2f195` Split socket create/connect (theuni)
- #11917 `bc66765` Add testnet DNS seed: (Sjors)
- #11512 `6e89de5` Use GetDesireableServiceFlags in seeds, dnsseeds, fixing static seed adding (TheBlueMatt)
- #12262 `16bac24` Hardcoded seed update (laanwj)
- #12270 `9cf6393` Update chainTxData for 0.16 (laanwj)
- #12392 `0f61651` Fix ignoring tx data requests when fPauseSend is set on a peer (TheBlueMatt)

### Wallet
- #11039 `fc51565` Avoid second mapWallet lookup (promag)
- #10952 `2621673` Remove vchDefaultKey and have better first run detection (achow101)
- #11007 `fc5c237` Fix potential memory leak when loading a corrupted wallet file (practicalswift)
- #10976 `07c92b9` Move some static functions out of wallet.h/cpp (ryanofsky)
- #11117 `961901f` Prepare for non-Base58 addresses (sipa)
- #10916 `e6ab88a` add missing lock to crypter GetKeys() (benma)
- #10767 `791a0e6` Clarify wallet initialization / destruction interface (jnewbery)
- #11250 `c22a53c` Bump wallet version to 159900 and remove the `usehd` option (achow101)
- #11307 `4f7e37e` Display non-HD error on first run (MarcoFalke)
- #11408 `69c7ece` Fix parameter name typo in ErasePurpose walletdb method (PierreRochard)
- #11167 `aa624b6` Full BIP173 (Bech32) support (sipa)
- #11594 `0ecc630` Improve -disablewallet parameter interaction (promag)
- #10368 `77ba4bf` Remove helper conversion operator from wallet (kallewoof)
- #11074 `99ec126` Assert that CWallet::SyncMetaData finds oldest transaction (BitonicEelis)
- #11272 `e6e3fc3` CKeystore/CCrypter: move relevant implementation out of the header (jonasschnelli)
- #10286 `927a1d7` Call wallet notify callbacks in scheduler thread (without cs_main) (TheBlueMatt)
- #10600 `4ed8180` Make feebumper class stateless (ryanofsky)
- #11466 `d080a7d` Specify custom wallet directory with -walletdir param (MeshCollider)
- #11839 `8ab6c0b` Don't attempt mempool entry for wallet transactions on startup (instagibbs)
- #11854 `2214954` Split up key and script metadata for better type safety (ryanofsky)
- #11870 `ef8ba7d` Remove unnecessary mempool lock in ReacceptWalletTransactions (promag)
- #11864 `2ae58d5` Make CWallet::FundTransaction atomic (promag)
- #11886 `df71819` Clarify getbalance meaning a tiny bit in response to questions (TheBlueMatt)
- #11923 `81c89e9` Remove unused fNoncriticalErrors variable from CWalletDB::FindWalletTx (PierreRochard)
- #11726 `604e08c` Cleanups + nit fixes for walletdir PR (MeshCollider)
- #11403 `d889c03` Segwit wallet support (sipa)
- #11970 `b7450cd` Add test coverage for bitcoin-cli multiwallet calls (ryanofsky)
- #11904 `66e3af7` Add a lock to the wallet directory (MeshCollider)
- #12101 `c7978be` Clamp walletpassphrase timeout to 2^30 seconds and check its bounds (achow101)
- #12210 `17180fa` Deprecate addwitnessaddress (laanwj)
- #12220 `f4c942e` Error if relative -walletdir is specified (ryanofsky)
- #11281 `8470e64` Avoid permanent cs_main/cs_wallet lock during RescanFromTime (jonasschnelli)
- #12119 `9594139` Use P2WPKH change output if any destination is P2WPKH or P2WSH (Sjors)
- #12213 `eadb2da` Add address type option to addmultisigaddress (promag)
- #12276 `7936446` Remove duplicate mapWallet lookups (promag)

### RPC and other APIs
- #11008 `3841aaf` Enable disablesafemode by default (gmaxwell)
- #11050 `7ed57d3` Avoid treating null RPC arguments different from missing arguments (ryanofsky)
- #10997 `affe927` Add option -stdinrpcpass to bitcoin-cli to allow RPC password to be read from standard input (jharvell)
- #11179 `e0e3cbb` Push down safe mode checks (laanwj)
- #11203 `d745b4c` add wtxid to mempool entry output (sdaftuar)
- #11099 `bc561b4` Add savemempool RPC (greenaddress)
- #10838 `66a5b41` (finally) remove getinfo (TheBlueMatt)
- #10753 `7fcd61b` test: Check RPC argument mapping (laanwj)
- #11288 `0f8e095` More user-friendly error message when partially signing (MeshCollider)
- #11031 `ef8340d` deprecate estimatefee (jnewbery)
- #10858 `9a8e916` Add "errors" field to getblockchaininfo and unify "errors" field in get*info RPCs (achow101)
- #11021 `90926db` Fix getchaintxstats() (AkioNak)
- #11367 `3a93270` getblockchaininfo: Add disk_size, prune_target_size (esotericnonsense)
- #11006 `a1d78b5` Improve shutdown process (promag)
- #11529 `ff92fbf` Avoid slow transaction search with txindex enabled (promag)
- #11618 `87d90ef` Lock cs_main in blockToJSON/blockheaderToJSON (practicalswift)
- #11626 `998c304` Make `logging` RPC public (laanwj)
- #11258 `033c786` Add initialblockdownload to getblockchaininfo (jnewbery)
- #11087 `99bc0b4` Diagnose unsuitable outputs in lockunspent() (BitonicEelis)
- #11710 `9388639` cli: Reject arguments to -getinfo (laanwj)
- #11738 `d4267a3` Fix sendrawtransaction hang when sending a tx already in mempool (TheBlueMatt)
- #11753 `32c9b57` clarify abortrescan rpc use (instagibbs)
- #11191 `ef14f2e` Improve help text and behavior of RPC-logging (AkioNak)
- #10874 `9e38d35` getblockchaininfo: Loop through the bip9 soft fork deployments instead of hard coding (achow101)
- #10275 `497d0e0` Allow fetching tx directly from specified block in getrawtransaction (kallewoof)
- #11178 `fee0370` Add iswitness parameter to decode- and fundrawtransaction RPCs (MeshCollider)
- #11667 `711d16c` Add scripts to dumpwallet RPC (MeshCollider)
- #11475 `9bad8d6` mempoolinfo should take ::minRelayTxFee into account (mess110)
- #12001 `a9a49e6` Adding ::minRelayTxFee amount to getmempoolinfo and updating help (jeffrade)
- #12198 `adce1de` Add deprecation error for `getinfo` (laanwj)
- #11415 `69ec021` Disallow using addresses in createmultisig (achow101)
- #12278 `288deac` Add special error for genesis coinbase to getrawtransaction (MeshCollider)
- #11362 `c6223b3` Remove nBlockMaxSize from miner opt struct as it is no longer used (gmaxwell)
- #10825 `28485c7` Set regtest JSON-RPC port to 18443 to avoid conflict with testnet 18332 (fametrano)
- #11303 `e542728` Fix estimatesmartfee rounding display issue (TheBlueMatt)
- #7061 `8c2de82` Add RPC call "rescanblockchain <startheight> <stopheight>" (jonasschnelli)
- #11055 `95e14dc` RPC getreceivedbyaddress should return error if called with address not owned by the wallet (jnewbery)
- #12366 `93de37a` http: Join worker threads before deleting work queue (laanwj)
- #12315 `758a41e` Bech32 addresses in dumpwallet (fivepiece)
- #12427 `3762ac1` Make signrawtransaction accept P2SH-P2WSH redeemscripts (sipa)

### GUI
- #10964 `64e66bb` Pass SendCoinsRecipient (208 bytes) by reference (practicalswift)
- #11169 `5b8af7b` Make tabs toolbar no longer have a context menu (achow101)
- #10911 `9c8f365` Fix typo and access key in optionsdialog.ui (keystrike)
- #10770 `ea729d5` Drop upgrade-cancel callback registration for a generic "cancelable" (TheBlueMatt)
- #11156 `a3624dd` Fix memory leaks in qt/guiutil.cpp (danra)
- #11268 `31e72b2` [macOS] remove Growl support, remove unused code (jonasschnelli)
- #11193 `c5c77bd` Terminate string *pszExePath after readlink and without using memset (practicalswift)
- #11508 `ffa5159` Fix crash via division by zero assertion (jonasschnelli)
- #11499 `6157e8c` Add upload and download info to the peerlist (debug menu) (aarongolliver)
- #11480 `ffc0b11` Add toggle for unblinding password fields (tjps)
- #11316 `22cdf93` Add use available balance in send coins dialog (CryptAxe, promag)
- #3716 `13e352d` Receive: Remove option to reuse a previous address (luke-jr)
- #11690 `f0c1f8a` Fix the StartupWMClass for bitoin-qt, so gnome-shell can recognize it (eklitzke)
- #10920 `f6f8d54` Fix potential memory leak in newPossibleKey(ChangeCWallet *wallet) (practicalswift)
- #11698 `7293d06` RPC-Console nested commands documentation  (lmlsna)
- #11395 `38d31f9` Enable searching by transaction id (luke-jr)
- #11556 `91eeaa0` Improved copy for RBF checkbox and tooltip (Sjors)
- #11809 `80f9dad` Fix proxy setting options dialog crash (laanwj)
- #11616 `8585bb8` Update ban-state in case of dirty-state during periodic sweep (jonasschnelli)
- #11605 `f19ca12` Enable RBF by default in QT (Sjors)
- #12074 `a1136f0` Optimizes boolean expression model && model->haveWatchOnly() (251Labs)
- #12035 `eeb6d52` Change µBTC to bits (jb55)
- #12092 `fd4ca17` Replaces numbered place marker %2 with %1 (251Labs)
- #12173 `bbc91b7` Use flexible font size for QRCode image address (jonasschnelli)
- #12211 `10d10d7` Avoid potential null dereference in ReceiveCoinsDialog constructor (ryanofsky)
- #12261 `f359afc` Bump BLOCK_CHAIN_SIZE to 200GB (laanwj)
- #11991 `062c8b6` Receive: checkbox for bech32 address (Sjors)
- #11644 `045a809` Fix qt build broken by 5a5e4e9 (TheBlueMatt)
- #11448 `d473e6d` reset addrProxy/addrSeparateProxyTor if colon char missing (mess110)
- #12377 `604f289` qt: Poll ShutdownTimer after init is done (MarcoFalke)
- #12374 `daaae36` qt: Make sure splash screen is freed on AppInitMain fail (laanwj)
- #12349 `ad10b90` shutdown: fix crash on shutdown with reindex-chainstate (theuni)

### Build system
- #10923 `2c9f5ec` travis: Build with --enable-werror under OS X (practicalswift)
- #11176 `df8c722` build: Rename --enable-experimental-asm to --enable-asm and enable by default (laanwj)
- #11286 `11dacc6` [depends] Don't build libevent sample code (fanquake)
- #7142 `801dd40` Travis: Test build against system libs (& Qt4) (luke-jr)
- #11380 `390771b` Remove outdated share/certs/ directory (MeshCollider)
- #11391 `7632310` Remove lxcbr0 lines from (MeshCollider)
- #11435 `167cef8` build: Make "make clean" remove all files created when running "make check" (practicalswift)
- #11460 `e022463` [depends] mac_alias 2.0.6, ds_store 1.1.2 (fanquake)
- #11541 `bb9ab0f` Build: Fix Automake warnings when running (fanquake)
- #11611 `0e70791` [build] Don't fail when passed --disable-lcov and lcov isn't available (fanquake)
- #11651 `3c098a8` refactor: Make all #includes relative to project root (laanwj, MeshCollider, ryanofsky)
- #11621 `1f7695b` [build] Add temp_bitcoin_locale_qrc to CLEAN_QT to fix make distcheck (fanquake)
- #11755 `84fa645` [Docs] Bump minimum required version of GCC to 4.8 (fanquake)
- #9254 `6d3dc52` [depends] ZeroMQ 4.2.2 (fanquake)
- #11842 `3c8f0a3` [build] Add missing stuff to clean-local (kallewoof)
- #11936 `483bb67` [build] Warn that only libconsensus can be built without Boost (fanquake)
- #11945 `7a11ba7` Improve BSD compatibility of contrib/ (laanwj)
- #11981 `180a255` Fix gitian build after libzmq bump (theuni)
- #11903 `8f68fd2` [trivial] Add required package dependencies for depends cross compilation (jonasschnelli)
- #12168 `45cf8a0`  #include sys/fcntl.h to just fcntl.h (without sys/) (jsarenik)
- #12095 `3fa1ab4` Use BDB_LIBS/CFLAGS and pass --disable-replication (fanquake)
- #11711 `6378e5c` bitcoin_qt.m4: Minor fixes and clean-ups (fanquake)
- #11989 `90d4104` .gitignore: add QT Creator artifacts (Sjors)
- #11577 `c0ae864` Fix warnings (-Wsign-compare) when building with DEBUG_ADDRMAN (practicalswift)

### Tests and QA
- #11024 `3e55f13` Remove OldSetKeyFromPassphrase/OldEncrypt/OldDecrypt (practicalswift)
- #10679 `31b2612` Document the non-DER-conformance of one test in tx_valid.json (schildbach)
- #11160 `ede386c` Improve versionbits_computeblockversion test code consistency (danra)
- #10303 `f088a1b` Include ms/blk stats in Connect* benchmarks (kallewoof)
- #10777 `d81dccf` Avoid redundant assignments. Remove unused variables (practicalswift)
- #11260 `52f8877` travis: Assert default datadir isn't created, Run scripted diff only once (MarcoFalke)
- #11271 `638e6c5` travis: filter out pyenv (theuni)
- #11285 `3255d63` Add -usehd to excluded args in (MeshCollider)
- #11297 `16e4184` Make sure ~/.bitcoin doesn't exist before build (MeshCollider)
- #11311 `cce94c5` travis: Revert default datadir check (MarcoFalke)
- #11300 `f4ed44a` Add a lint check for trailing whitespace (MeshCollider)
- #11323 `4ce2f3d` mininode: add an optimistic write and disable nagle (theuni)
- #11370 `2d85899` Add getblockchaininfo functional test (promag)
- #11365 `f199b8a` Add Qt GUI tests to Overview and ReceiveCoin Page (anditto)
- #11293 `dbc4ae0` Deduplicate CMerkleBlock construction code, add test coverage (jamesob)
- #10440 `9e8ef9d` Add libFuzzer support (practicalswift)
- #10941 `364da2c` Add blocknotify and walletnotify functional tests (promag)
- #11420 `8928093` Bump univalue subtree and fix json formatting in tests (MarcoFalke)
- #10099 `424be03` Slightly Improve Unit Tests for Checkqueue (JeremyRubin)
- #11513 `14b860b` A few Python3 tidy ups (jnewbery)
- #11486 `2ca518d` Add uacomment tests (mess110)
- #11452 `02ac8c8` Improve ZMQ functional test (promag)
- #10409 `b5545d8` Add fuzz testing for BlockTransactions and BlockTransactionsRequest (practicalswift)
- #11389 `dd56166` Support having segwit always active in regtest (sipa, ajtowns, jnewbery)
- #11562 `5776582` bench: use std::chrono rather than gettimeofday (theuni)
- #11182 `f7388e9` Add P2P interface to TestNode (jnewbery)
- #11552 `b5f9f02` Improve wallet-accounts test (ryanofsky)
- #11638 `5e3f5e4` Dead mininode code (jnewbery)
- #11646 `fe503e1` Require a steady clock for bench with at least micro precision (TheBlueMatt)
- #11468 `76b3349` Make comp test framework more debuggable (jnewbery)
- #11623 `ee92243` Add missing locks to tests (practicalswift)
- #11035 `927e528` [contrib] Add Valgrind suppressions file (practicalswift)
- #11641 `7adeea3` Only allow disconnecting all NodeConns (MarcoFalke)
- #11677 `3bdf242` Remove unused NodeConn members (MarcoFalke)
- #11699 `66d46c7` [travis-ci] Only run linters on Pull Requests (jnewbery)
- #11654 `084f52f` Initialize recently introduced non-static class member lastCycles to zero in constructor (practicalswift)
- #11648 `ccc70a2` Add (jnewbery)
- #11713 `49667a7` Fix for mismatched extern definition in wallet tests (sipsorcery)
- #11707 `0d89fa0` Fix sendheaders (jnewbery)
- #11718 `9cdd2bc` Move pwalletMain to wallet test fixture (laanwj)
- #11714 `901ba3e` Test that mempool rejects coinbase transactions (jamesob)
- #11743 `3d6ad40` Add multiwallet prefix test (MarcoFalke)
- #11683 `a892218` Remove unused mininode functions {ser,deser}_int_vector(...). Remove unused imports (practicalswift)
- #11712 `9f2c2db` Split NodeConn from NodeConnCB (jnewbery)
- #11791 `13e31dd` Rename NodeConn and NodeConnCB (jnewbery)
- #11835 `f60b4ad` Add Travis check for unused Python imports (practicalswift)
- #11849 `ad1820c` Assert that only one NetworkThread exists (jnewbery)
- #11877 `d4991c0` Improve createrawtransaction functional tests (promag)
- #11220 `2971fd0` Check specific validation error in miner tests (Sjors)
- #11947 `797441e` Fix rawtransactions test (laanwj)
- #11946 `8049241` Remove unused variable (firstAddrnServices) (practicalswift)
- #11867 `18a1bba` Improve node network test (jnewbery)
- #11883 `cfd99dd` Add configuration file/argument testing (MeshCollider)
- #11879 `d4e404a` Remove redundant univalue_tests.cpp (jnewbery)
- #11748 `20166f8` Adding unit tests for GetDifficulty in blockchain.cpp (merehap)
- #11517 `5180a86` Improve benchmark precision (martinus)
- #11291 `a332a7d` Fix string concatenation to os.path.join and add exception case (dongsam)
- #11965 `d38d1a3` Note on test order in test_runner (MarcoFalke)
- #11997 `ddff344` util_tests.cpp: actually check ignored args (ajtowns)
- #12079 `45173fa` Improve prioritisetransaction test coverage (promag)
- #12150 `92a810d` Fix ListCoins test failure due to unset g_address_type, g_change_type (ryanofsky)
- #12133 `1d2eaba` Fix rare failure in (sdaftuar)
- #12082 `0910cbe` Adding test case for SINGLE|ANYONECANPAY hash type in tx_valid.json (Christewart)
- #11796 `4db16ec` Functional test naming convention (ajtowns)
- #12227 `b987ca4` test_runner: Readable output if fails (ryanofsky)
- #12089 `126000b` Make TestNodeCLI command optional in send_cli (MarcoFalke)
- #11774 `6970b30` Rename functional tests (ajtowns)
- #12264 `598a9c4` Fix versionbits warning test (jnewbery)
- #12217 `1213be6` Add missing syncwithvalidationinterfacequeue to tests (MarcoFalke)
- #12292 `eebe458` Fix names of excluded extended tests for travis (ajtowns)
- #11789 `60d739e` [travis-ci] Combine logs on failure (jnewbery)
- #11838 `3e50024` Add getrawtransaction in_active_chain=False test (MarcoFalke)
- #12206 `898f560` Sync with validationinterface queue in sync_mempools (MarcoFalke)
- #12424 `ff44101` Fix rescan test failure due to unset g_address_type, g_change_type (ryanofsky)
- #12388 `e2431d1` travis: Full clone for git subtree check (MarcoFalke)

### Documentation
- #10680 `6366941` Fix inconsistencies and grammar in various files (MeshCollider)
- #11011 `7db65c3` Add a comment on the use of prevector in script (gmaxwell)
- #10878 `c58128f` Fix Markdown formatting issues in (dongcarl)
- #11066 `9e00a62` Document the preference of nullptr over NULL or (void*)0 (practicalswift)
- #11094 `271e40a` Hash in ZMQ hash is raw bytes, not hex (runn1ng)
- #11026 `ea3ac59` Bugfix: Use testnet RequireStandard for -acceptnonstdtxn default (luke-jr)
- #11058 `4b65fa5` Comments: More comments on functions/globals in standard.h (jimpo)
- #11112 `3f726c9` [developer-notes] By default, declare single-argument constructors "explicit" (practicalswift)
- #11155 `a084767` Trivial: Documentation fixes for CVectorWriter ctors (danra)
- #11136 `108222b` Docs: Add python3 to list of dependencies on some platforms (danra)
- #11216 `81f8c03` Update hmac_sha256.h (utsavgupta)
- #11236 `ba05971` Add note on translations to (MeshCollider)
- #11173 `4eb1f39` RPC: Fix currency unit string in the help text (AkioNak)
- #11135 `21e2f2f` Update developer notes with RPC response guidelines (promag)
- #11219 `bcc8a62` explain how to recompile a modified unit test (Sjors)
- #10779 `f656147` Create (flack)
- #10682 `2a56baf` Move the AreInputsStandard documentation next to its implementation (esneider)
- #11276 `ee50c9e` Update to reduce unnecessary review workload (jonasschnelli)
- #11264 `b148803` Fix broken Markdown table in (practicalswift)
- #10691 `ce82985` Properly comment about shutdown process in init.cpp file (wraith7)
- #11330 `ae233c4` Fix comments for DEFAULT_WHITELIST[FORCE]RELAY (danra)
- #11340 `d6d2c85` Fix validation comments (danra)
- #11305 `2847480` Update release notes and manpages for 0.16 (MarcoFalke)
- #11132 `551d7bf` Document assumptions that are being made to avoid NULL pointer dereferences (practicalswift)
- #11390 `12ed800` Document scripted-diff (jnewbery)
- #11392 `a3b4c59` Fix stale link in (shooterman)
- #11401 `4202273` Move gitian building to external repo (MarcoFalke)
- #11414 `bbc901d` Remove partial gitian build instructions from descriptors dir (fanquake)
- #11571 `c95832d` Fixed a couple small grammatical errors (BitsInMyBlood)
- #11624 `f9b74ef` Change formatting for sequence of steps (vivganes)
- #11597 `6f01dcf` Fix error messages in CFeeBumper (kallewoof)
- #11438 `7fbf3c6` Updated Windows build doc for WSL/Xenial workaround (sipsorcery)
- #11663 `41aa9c4` Add getreceivedbyaddress release notes (MarcoFalke)
- #11533 `cbb54e7` Update WSL installation notes for Fall Creators update (Thoragh)
- #11680 `4db82b7` Add instructions for lcov report generation (jamesob)
- #11686 `54aedc0` Make ISSUE_TEMPLATE a bit shorter, mention hardware tests (TheBlueMatt)
- #11704 `ea68190` Windows build doc update (sipsorcery)
- #11706 `5197100` Make default issue text all comments to make issues more readable (TheBlueMatt)
- #11140 `1429132` Improve #endif comments (danra)
- #11729 `7a43fbb` links to code style guides (Sjors)
- #11793 `8879d50` Bump OS X version to 10.13 (Varunram)
- #11783 `16fff80` Fix shutdown in case of errors during initialization (laanwj)
- #11804 `00d25e9` Fixed outdated link with (TimothyShimmin)
- #11960 `4307062` Fix link to installation script (laudaa)
- #12027 `63a4dc1` Remove boost --c++ flag from osx build instructions (fernandezpablo85)
- #12062 `5961b23` Increment MIT Licence copyright header year on files modified in 2017 (akx20000a)
- #12063 `36a5a44` Update license year range to 2018 (akx20000a)
- #12093 `5691028` Fix incorrect Markdown link (practicalswift)
- #12143 `b0d626d` Fix link for BIP159 pull request (azuchi)
- #12112 `3c62868` Remove the ending slashes from RPC URI format (jackycjh)
- #12166 `e839d65` Clarify -walletdir usage (jnewbery)
- #12241 `b030133` Fix incorrect link in /test/ (fanquake)
- #12187 `b5e4b9b` Updating with an updated sample output (jeffrade)
- #12294 `7cf1aea` Create NetBSD build instructions and fix compilation (fanquake)
- #12251 `cc5870a` initwallet: Do not translate highly technical addresstype help (MarcoFalke)
- #11984 `efae366` Update OpenBSD build instructions for 6.2 (cont'd) (laanwj)
- #12293 `9d9c418` Mention that HD is enabled if hdmasterkeyid is present in getwalletinfo RPC help (fanquake)
- #12077 `c04cb48` Correct `sendmany` curl example (251Labs)
- #10677 `b3ecb7b` Document that addmultisigaddress is intended for non-watchonly addresses (instagibbs)
- #12177 `cad504b` Fix address_type help text of getnewaddress and getrawchangeaddress (mruddy)

### Refactoring
- #9964 `b6a4891` Add const to methods that do not modify the object for which it is called (practicalswift)
- #10965 `655970d` Replace deprecated throw() with noexcept specifier (C++11) (practicalswift)
- #10645 `c484ec6` Use nullptr (C++11) instead of zero (0) as the null pointer constant (practicalswift)
- #10901 `22e301a` Fix constness of ArgsManager methods (promag)
- #10969 `4afb5aa` Declare single-argument (non-converting) constructors "explicit" (practicalswift)
- #11071 `dbf6bd6` Use static_assert(…, …) (C++11) instead of assert(…) where appropriate (practicalswift)
- #10809 `c559884` optim: mark a few classes final (theuni)
- #10843 `2ab7c63` Add attribute [[noreturn]] (C++11) to functions that will not return (practicalswift)
- #11151 `7fd49d0` Fix header guards using reserved identifiers (danra)
- #11138 `2982511` Compat: Simplify bswap_16 implementation (danra)
- #11161 `745bbdc` Remove redundant explicitly defined copy ctors (danra)
- #11144 `cee4fe1` Move local include to before system includes (danra)
- #10781 `60dd9cc` Python cleanups (practicalswift)
- #10701 `50fae68` Remove the virtual specifier for functions with the override specifier (practicalswift)
- #11164 `38a54a5` Fix boost headers included as user instead of system headers (danra)
- #11143 `3aa60b7` Fix include path for bitcoin-config.h (danra)
- #8330 `59e1789` Structure Packing Optimizations in C{,Mutable}Transaction (JeremyRubin)
- #10845 `39ae413` Remove unreachable code (practicalswift)
- #11238 `6acdb1f` Add assertions before potential null deferences (MeshCollider)
- #11259 `089b742` Remove duplicate destination decoding (promag)
- #11232 `2f0d3e6` Ensure that data types are consistent (jjz)
- #10793 `efb4383` Changing &var[0] to (MeshCollider)
- #11196 `e278f86` Switch memory_cleanse implementation to BoringSSL's to ensure memory clearing even with -lto (maaku)
- #10888 `9821274` range-based loops and const qualifications in net.cpp (benma)
- #11351 `6c4fecf` Refactor: Modernize disallowed copy constructors/assignment (danra)
- #11385 `94c9015` Remove some unused functions and methods (sipa)
- #11301 `8776787` add m_added_nodes to connman options (benma)
- #11432 `058c0f9` Remove unused fTry from push_lock (promag)
- #11107 `e93fff1` Fix races in AppInitMain and others with lock and atomic bools (MeshCollider)
- #9572 `17f2ace` Skip witness sighash cache for non-segwit transactions (jl2012)
- #10961 `da0478e` Improve readability of DecodeBase58Check(...) (practicalswift)
- #11133 `a865b38` Document assumptions that are being made to avoid division by zero (practicalswift)
- #11073 `3bb77eb` Remove dead store in ecdsa_signature_parse_der_lax (BitonicEelis)
- #10898 `470c730` Fix invalid checks (NULL checks after dereference, redundant checks, etc.) (practicalswift)
- #11495 `50d72b3` [trivial] Make namespace explicit for is_regular_file (jnewbery)
- #11511 `db2f83e` [Init] Remove redundant exit(EXIT_FAILURE) instances and replace with return false (donaloconnor)
- #10866 `ef8a634` Fix -Wthread-safety-analysis warnings. Compile with -Wthread-safety-analysis if available (practicalswift)
- #11221 `0dec4cc` Refactor: simpler read (gnuser)
- #10696 `ef3758d` Remove redundant nullptr checks before deallocation (practicalswift)
- #11043 `5e9be16` Use std::unique_ptr (C++11) where possible (practicalswift)
- #11353 `05a7619` Small refactor of CCoinsViewCache::BatchWrite() (danra)
- #10749 `2adbddb` Use compile-time constants instead of unnamed enumerations (remove "enum hack") (practicalswift)
- #11603 `a933cb1` Move RPC registration out of AppInitParameterInteraction (ryanofsky)
- #11722 `26efc22` Switched sync.{cpp,h} to std threading primitives (tjps)
- #10493 `fbce66a` Use range-based for loops (C++11) when looping over map elements (practicalswift)
- #11337 `0d7e0a3` Fix code constness in CBlockIndex::GetAncestor() overloads (danra)
- #11516 `0e722e8` crypto: Add test cases covering the relevant HMAC-SHA{256,512} key length boundaries (practicalswift)
- #10574 `5d132e8` Remove includes in .cpp files for things the corresponding .h file already included (practicalswift)
- #11884 `66479c0` Remove unused include in hash.cpp (kallewoof)
- #10839 `c66adb2` Don't use pass by reference to const for cheaply-copied types (bool, char, etc.) (practicalswift)
- #10657 `79399c8` Utils: Improvements to ECDSA key-handling code (str4d)
- #12250 `e37ca2b` Make CKey::Load references const (ryanofsky)
- #12108 `9220426` Remove unused fQuit var from checkqueue.h (donaloconnor)
- #12159 `f3c7062` Use the character based overload for std::string::find (kekimusmaximus)
- #12266 `3448907` Move scheduler/threadGroup into common-init instead of per-app (TheBlueMatt)

### Miscellaneous
- #11246 `777519b` github-merge: Coalesce git fetches (laanwj)
- #10871 `c9a4aa8` Handle getinfo in bitcoin-cli w/ -getinfo (revival of #8843) (achow101)
- #11419 `093074b` Utils: Fix launchctl not being able to stop bitcoind (OmeGak)
- #11394 `6e4e98e` Perform a weaker subtree check in Travis (sipa)
- #11702 `4122112` [build] Add a script for installing db4 (jamesob)
- #11794 `dd49862` Prefix leveldb debug logging (laanwj)
- #11781 `24df9af` Add `-debuglogfile` option (laanwj)
- #10773 `c17f11f` Shell script cleanups (practicalswift)
- #11829 `7630a1f` Test datadir specified in conf file exists (MeshCollider)
- #11836 `d44535d` Rename to (hkjn)
- #11831 `d48ab83` Always return true if AppInitMain got to the end (TheBlueMatt)
- #11943 `1808660` contrib: fix typo in help message (laanwj)
- #12075 `c991b30` [scripts] Add missing univalue file to (fanquake)
- #12197 `000ac4f` Log debug build status and warn when running benchmarks (laanwj)
- #10672 `6ab0e4c` Avoid division by zero in the case of a corrupt estimates file (practicalswift)
- #11273 `cdd6bbf` Ignore old format estimation file (Xekyo)
- #11951 `1fb34e0` Remove dead feeest-file read code for old versions (TheBlueMatt)
- #11421 `9ccafb1` Merge current secp256k1 subtree (MarcoFalke)
- #11573 `2631d55` [Util] Update tinyformat.h (fanquake)
- #10529 `331352f` Improve bitcoind systemd service file (Flowdalic)
- #11620 `70fec9e` [build] .gitignore: add background.tiff (Sjors)
- #11558 `68e021e` Minimal code changes to allow msvc compilation (sipsorcery)
- #11284 `10bee0d` Fix invalid memory access in CScript::operator+= (guidovranken, ajtowns)
- #10939 `a1f7f18` [init] Check non-emptiness of -blocknotify command prior to executing (practicalswift)
- #11467 `937613d` Fix typos. Use nullptr instead of NULL (practicalswift)
- #11834 `5bea05b` [verify-commits] Fix's echoing for commits with '\n' (TheBlueMatt)
- #11830 `a13e443` Use 'python' not 'python2' (hkjn)
- #12194 `7abb0f0` Add change type option to fundrawtransaction (promag)
- #12269 `2ae7cf8` Update defaultAssumeValid to block 506067 (gmaxwell)
- #11952 `9ab9963` univalue: Bump subtree (MarcoFalke)
- #12367 `09fc859` Fix two fast-shutdown bugs (TheBlueMatt)
- #12422 `4d54e7a` util: Make LockDirectory thread-safe, consistent, and fix OpenBSD 6.2 build (laanwj)


Thanks to everyone who directly contributed to this release:

- 251
- Aaron Clauson
- Aaron Golliver
- aaron-hanson
- Adam Langley
- Akio Nakamura
- Akira Takizawa
- Alejandro Avilés
- Alex Morcos
- Alin Rus
- Anditto Heristyo
- Andras Elso
- Andreas Schildbach
- Andrew Chow
- Anthony Towns
- azuchi
- Carl Dong
- Chris Moore
- Chris Stewart
- Christian Gentry
- Cory Fields
- Cristian Mircea Messel
- CryptAxe
- Dan Raviv
- Daniel Edgecumbe
- danra
- david60
- Donal O'Connor
- dongsamb
- Dusty Williams
- Eelis
- esneider
- Evan Klitzke
- fanquake
- Ferdinando M. Ametrano
- fivepiece
- flack
- Florian Schmaus
- gnuser
- Gregory Maxwell
- Gregory Sanders
- Henrik Jonsson
- Jack Grigg
- Jacky C
- James Evans
- James O'Beirne
- Jan Sarenik
- Jeff Rade
- Jeremiah Buddenhagen
- Jeremy Rubin
- Jim Posen
- jjz
- Joe Harvell
- Johannes Kanig
- John Newbery
- Johnson Lau
- Jonas Nick
- Jonas Schnelli
- João Barbosa
- Jorge Timón
- Karel Bílek
- Karl-Johan Alm
- klemens
- Kyuntae Ethan Kim
- laudaa
- Lawrence Nahum
- Lucas Betschart
- Luke Dashjr
- Luke Mlsna
- MarcoFalke
- Mark Friedenbach
- Marko Bencun
- Martin Ankerl
- Matt Corallo
- mruddy
- Murch
- NicolasDorier
- Pablo Fernandez
- Paul Berg
- Pedro Branco
- Pierre Rochard
- Pieter Wuille
- practicalswift
- Randolf Richardson
- Russell Yanofsky
- Samuel Dobson
- Sean Erle Johnson
- Shooter
- Sjors Provoost
- Suhas Daftuar
- Thomas Snider
- Thoragh
- Tim Shimmin
- Tomas van der Wansem
- Utsav Gupta
- Varunram Ganesh
- Vivek Ganesan
- Werner Lemberg
- William Casarin
- Willy Ko
- Wladimir J. van der Laan

As well as everyone that helped translating on Transifex.

Note this thread will be self-moderated to keep out the spam that usually appears in these release announcement threads.
16  Bitcoin / Development & Technical Discussion / MOVED: BTCZ wallet issue - BTCz tokens haven`t arrived on: February 12, 2018, 11:08:44 PM
This topic has been moved to Trashcan.

Duplicate thread
17  Bitcoin / Bitcoin Technical Support / MOVED: Smart arbitration contact will realize transaction between the legal tender and on: February 10, 2018, 05:34:20 PM
This topic has been moved to Trashcan.

18  Bitcoin / Development & Technical Discussion / MOVED: hyperledger or ethereum? on: January 31, 2018, 01:42:17 AM
This topic has been moved to Trashcan.

19  Bitcoin / Development & Technical Discussion / MuSig: Schnorr Multisig and signature aggregation on: January 25, 2018, 01:38:56 AM
Pieter Wuille, Andrew Poelstra, Greg Maxwell, and Yannick Seurin recently published a new multisignature and key aggregation scheme called MuSig. This new scheme uses Schnorr signatures.

The MuSig paper can be found here:

A high level overview of MuSig is available here:

MuSig is a secure non-interactive key aggregation and multisig scheme. It builds upon the Bellare-Nevan multisignature scheme which allows for multiple public keys to be used to create just one signature. This contrasts the traditional multisignature scheme used by Bitcoin where there are multiple signatures.

MuSig builds upon Bellare-Nevan by allowing for key aggregation. Key aggregation means that multiple public keys are combined into one public key. By combining this key aggregation scheme and the Bellare-Nevan multisig scheme, MuSig allows for a multisignature spend to contain only one public key and one signature (both of which can only be constructed with the multiple parties). This means that MuSig allows for additional privacy (an outside observer only sees the one signature and combined public key so they don't know how many people are involved and what the threshold is) and reduces the size of a multisig signature (instead of multiple public keys and multiple signatures, only the combined public key and signature are used). This reduces the size of transactions which means that more transactions could fit into a block thus increasing Bitcoin's capacity.

Furthermore, the multisig aspect of MuSig (aka the Bellare-Nevan part) lets transactions to have only one signature which verifies for all of the public keys involved in a transaction. That means that a transaction with multiple inputs will only have one signature which signs for all inputs. This further reduces the size of a transaction and allows for more transactions to fit in a block and thus increasing Bitcoin's capacity.

It is important to note that MuSig is just the signature scheme and is applicable to more things than just Bitcoin. For actual use in Bitcoin, additional changes will need to be made to support it such as new script opcodes. For that to happen, there will need to be a BIP which is several months off (perhaps a year or more away).
20  Bitcoin / Development & Technical Discussion / MOVED: Bitcoin based on not-Blockchain technology on: January 16, 2018, 11:08:52 PM
This topic has been moved to Trashcan.

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