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1  Bitcoin / Bitcoin Discussion / Avalon ASIC is planning an AMA at 9am, April 9. on: April 09, 2015, 11:54:40 AM
Hello, I'm ngzhang, founder of Avalon ASIC project, CEO of Canaan-Creative Co.,Ltd.

We developed the first ASIC chip for Bitcoin mining and shipped the first mining machine to the community. We are still making efforts in this area.

We will answer anything we know about the current status and trend of mining machines, farm and BTC adoption, etc. See you at the AMA later!

TIME: 9 am, April 9th, Eastern Standard Time

LINK: (finished)

2  Bitcoin / Hardware / Avalon Gen2&3 ASIC users thread on: May 11, 2014, 03:22:54 PM
Here is a general thread for owners of Avalon Gen2 (A3255) and Avalon Gen3 ASIC (e.g. A3233) miners. 

On account of big difference between new MM (Miner manager) based Avalon Gen2 & Gen3 miners and old Gen1 miners, I decide to open a new user thread. 

For old Avalon Gen1 & Gen2 ASIC, Please refer to previous thread:

This thread is primarily for Avalon self-made miners,  but any other thrid-party clone miner users are still welcome.

3  Bitcoin / Hardware / "Avalon" ASIC, announcement & pre-order. pre-order over. project started. on: September 17, 2012, 07:48:26 AM
Important Notice

3, for Chinese customers only:


4, outside China payment inquire, please contact :

hi, every one.

after a long time, we finally finished our research and emulation. now it's time to go.

here is our project plan, and some additional information:

1, an introduction & pre-order website for out-China customers will online around 9.23. multiple payment methods are acceptable.

2, this Project will handle by a highly experienced team, they have 10+ years of ASIC development experience, include all design process. also, they are very trustworthy, their leader is one of my teachers.

3, this ASIC will manufacture by SMIC or TSMC.  0.11 or 0.13 process.

4, form now to 9.22 is time for survey, payment will start around 9.23.

5, pre-order website online!

6, official forum online!

a business plan is posted below. it MAY be slightly modify or add content this week, and will freeze before payment start.

any question is welcome.

Mining ASIC "Avalon"

Avalon self-contained unit >= 60GH/s guaranteed.
pre-order price: $1,299.
note: host PC NOT required. LAN/WIFI connection required.
disclaimer: used ONLY for bitcoin mining.
warranty: 1 year.


Sample Batch ( about 10 units ) at the end of December, 2012
- video demonstration of final product in operation can be seen at this time.

Production Batch will start immediately after, conservative estimate it will finish between January and February of 2013.

Shipping will start from February 2013 following the order sequence.

note: above is a conservative estimated time. There may be slight delay or possibility of being ahead of schedule.


We are taking orders for the “initial batch run”. They will be only 300 units available for pre-order. again, the price is $1,299 per unit.
note: large order will have priorities.

after that, until final product in operation, the price rise to 1999USD per unit.

"important notice: if not all of the 300 unit in the first batch is booked, the batch will not happen and a refund will be issued."

if you are interested, please email me. include your information: country, order quantity and payment method.


QQ: 17568957

Offical Website for pre-ordering will be available with-in the week.

Trade-in projct:

any icarus or lancelot user can trade-in their icarus or Lancelot mining board for 300USD (icarus) or 400USD (lancelot). every new 60G mining machine can only trade-in one old mining board. this project will start after mass-production.

trade-in is NOT available for pre-orders.


阿瓦隆 矿机, 速度保证大于60Ghash/s。外形为一个机箱。
注意: 阿瓦隆只能用来挖比特币,不能干别的.






预订: 从9.23日开始,到2012年10月8日截止。






QQ: 17568957



您可以用之前的icarus或者lancelot来抵换新的阿瓦隆矿机,icarus可以折2000元人民币,lancelot可以折2500元人民币。 每台阿瓦隆矿机只能用1片之前的矿机来进行折价。换购计划从量产开始。



4  Bitcoin / Hardware / FPGA development board "Lancelot" - accept bitsteam developer's orders. on: May 06, 2012, 03:33:44 PM
any news and Q&A will post in this thread.
as we all know, Lancelot is a improvement edition for past "icarus" board. now the hardware design work is nearly finish ), but the firmware development is facing serious difficulties. Sad
i write down what is confirmable and what we are still working at.
please feel free to ask questions, and i will answer what i can answer, if i can't answer right now, i will answer them later.
the design is not finished yet, so if there is any valuable suggestion i will put it into the design.

ADD @ 8/5

accept bitsteam developer's orders.

one set for one person only.

on set include:

1* Lancelot, with standard cooling system, WITHOUT power adapter.
1* DEV kit, with necessary software, documents.
1* EMS shipment Service.

the total price is 500USD.

if you want to place an order, please sent a email to:

or a PM, or both for a measure.

the message must include : your address.

payment accept MTGOX redeem code and bitcoins.

the shipment date is in 1 week after the payment.

ADD some pictures.


1st batch production date fixed @ 7/17! quantity is 100. ----already finished, and tested.
bitsteam development reached a milestone. single core running correctly (very small but fast), but overall performance still waiting measurement. maybe will release at about 550MH/s per board, and rise to over 700MH/s after 1-2 bitsteam updates.
pre-order is still NOT acceptable.
price will reduce significantly after batch 2 (hope will have batch 3. )

EXTREMELY busy these days! reviewing HDL codes with other developers to mid night everyday! fix the hardware bugs! do the prepare work for the production! and lots of school works!
apologize for all delay, include mails and messages. will catch up next week..

sample stage reached (@6/6)! doing the hardware test.

some pictures:

notice: all test batch boards are green, and retail products is blue PCB. this is a personal habits.


1, price.

500 USD for one, and will lower up to  20% if your order is large (>50 Pcs).

2, delivery time.
still unknown. hardware will come out in may, first batch delivery will in July.

3, architecture.
XC6SLX150 *2, maybe -2C/ -2I/ -3C/ -N3C speed grade. first batch will be -2I speed grade.

4, speed.
still unknown, our design goal is higher than 550MH/s pre board (-2I speed grade), but.... who knows. certainly, will not slower than icarus.

5, power consume.
better than icarus. (hope for 10-25% more MH/W performance, means 25MH/w)

6, other features.

a, board temperature monitoring.
b, PWM fan control and speed monitoring.
c, standard 6 or 9CM low speed(1200RPM) fan.
d, MCU friendly port for development.
e, 64 GPIOs for general purpose application. plus 8LEDs, 8Switches, 4 push buttons, 24 internal connections.
f, 100 CM^2 PCB size.
g, both 2.5/5.5mm power plug and D-type Molex power connector.
h, 6-layer PCB with 2OZ copper for enhance cooling. special layout design for lower the FPGA core temperature.
i, USB port for communication.
j, ROHS.
k, will compatible with present icarus bitsteam at first.
l, core power module can provide 14A(25A peak) for each FPGA VCCINT, and io power module can provide 6A for VCCIO and VCCAUX (share by 2 FPGAs), all continuous output.
m, 2 milliOHM MOSFET.

7, pre-orders.
not start yet. will start when we begin the first batch's production.

8, cluster model.
our plan is implement a cluster model by a mother board. and will have LAN and WIFI function for independent operation.
but this mother board is still at the beginning stage of development . i hope will have a sample in future 2-3 months.
happily, there is no technical difficulties on this part, only need is to do.

9, about developer tools.
DEV KIT is still available.

10, open source.
hardware will still fully open sourced, software and firmware will have open sourced versions too.
on of ouer plan is to apply a close sourced commercial SHA256 core, but this practice is still under valuation.

11, payment
will same as past, BTCs, MTGOX$, wire, paypal(with 5%plus fee), LR. but NO Dwolla.

12, warranty.
will have a 90 days limited warranty and 1 year repair service with charge.
limited warranty means will have a free repair service for any unartificial caused damage. but NOT include FPGA damage (for any reason) and Artificial damage.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------Small installation guide---------------------------------------------------------


All Lancelot mining board delivery with a default bitsteam, so the boards can operate "out of box".

the Power switch is at the right side of the board, default is OFF. please keep the board OFF when you do the assembling work.

Hardware installation:

1, connect the Power cable, use Molex-D-type connector or 5.5/2.5mm power plug. please do not use both of them.
2, connect the USB cable. notice that computer will not found any new hardware when the board is power OFF.
3, keep the environment cool.
4, turn on the board. the fan will start to operate, and the white LED (DONE1 and DONE2) will light up. and your computer will find some new hardware.

software installation:

1, the only need driver is the FT232R driver, you can download it here:
use the  "Virtual COM Port Drivers".

2, open your device manager, and record the COM port number.

3, download cgminer, i only test the 2.4.1 version.

start the program by a .bat file, the following is an example:

cgminer  -G -o -u ngzhang1983@msn.com_0 -p 1234  -S com6


the "-G" parameter means disable the GPU devices, the "-S com6" parameter indicate the Lancelot mining board is at com port "6". you must change this number to your board number.

you should get the follow screen:


cgminer version 2.4.1 - Started: [2012-08-22 20:29:26]
 (5s):363.9 (avg):253.4 Mh/s | Q:6  A:0  R:0  HW:0  E:0%  U:0.0/m
 TQ: 1  ST: 3  SS: 0  DW: 1  NB: 2  LW: 0  GF: 0  RF: 0
 Connected to with LP as user 4382312@gmail.com_0
 Block: 000002e6078f1b66e8735513a4a298e7...  Started: [20:29:39]
 [P]ool management [S]ettings [D]isplay options [Q]uit
 ICA 0:                | 184.4/253.4Mh/s | A:0 R:0 HW:0 U:0.00/m

 [2012-08-22 20:29:23] Started cgminer 2.4.1
 [2012-08-22 20:29:23] Found 0 ztex board(s)
 [2012-08-22 20:29:23] Probing for an alive pool
 [2012-08-22 20:29:26] Long-polling activated for
 [2012-08-22 20:29:26] Pool 0 alive
 [2012-08-22 20:29:27] Pool 1 alive
 [2012-08-22 20:29:27] Long-polling activated for
 [2012-08-22 20:29:39] LONGPOLL from pool 0 detected new block

5  Other / Off-topic / OK, i confirmed the model of FPGA they are using in BFL single. on: May 06, 2012, 12:23:27 PM
first, an Anonymous send me a broken BFL single for free. thank you!

i disassemble the box and start a JTAG probing on JTAG2.
the board act the same as  this post:

but by the component size (29X29mm, 780pin), Flash memory size (64Mbit), i nearly to be certain it's a altera atratix3 FPGA. 99% possibility is a EP3SL150F780.
so i scraped the VIA under the chip, probe the JTAG pins, and finally find they bread the TDO line by remove the R36 resister.

by soldering the 0R resister back, I can detect the FPGAs by the JTAG normally.

so now is the result:

Device IDCODE :        00010010000100000010000011011101

it's  a EP3SL150.

you can check the ID cords here:

page 16.


i also check the price of this chip.
on digikey, it's about 2000-3000USD,

but this old chip is about 200-300USD in China market for a new one, and about 50-60 USD for a used one. i discussed with my supplier about the strange price, they said because nearly no one use this stuff, so the price is like a " markdown sale", so there are no large quantity of this chip in the market, maybe only a few hundreds (both new and used one).

all above is only personal viewpoint, I shall not accept any responsibility.
6  Bitcoin / Hardware / Official Icarus last batch "group purchase" thread. on: March 24, 2012, 07:00:20 AM
hi, everyone.

In my original plan, icarus project will discontinued after batch 3, because i must move to my next product "Lancelot".

maybe because it's really at least 8 weeks away. i saw many people still want Icarus board, and start a unofficial Group buying thread.

as everyone noticed, some event which make us not pleasant happened.

first of all, i make this product not only for make money for my self, but also by my interest. by doing this, now i have many friends around the world.

this time i underestimated everybody's enthusiasm on icarus, but my future plan must continue. so i find one of my friend "xiangfu" to operate this group purchase. i trusted him, and i will take the risk of any scam issues. i hope you can trust him too.

some notice:

1, this batch will no more than 50 boards.
2, 90% possibility will ship out in April.
3, will ship from China.
7  Bitcoin / Hardware / FPGA development board "Icarus" - DisContinued/ important announcement on: November 09, 2011, 05:29:57 PM
important announcement:

3rd batch is over.

if you ordered but have no payment inform response, this may cause by my negligence. first i apologize for the careless.
all bulk order shipped, and there are still a few boards left for small orders, they can be shipped in 2-3 days.
if you still want it, please sent me a PM or email ASAP.

if you payed but didn't get my shipment confirmation (include a tracking NO.), this may cause by my negligence. first i apologize for the careless.
please notice me by PM ASAP!

there will be NO batch4 for Icarus project.
and i still have some boards on my hands, but i will reserve them for testing and replace purpose. if you want one eagerly, please feel free to mail me.  Grin

i will take a month break and put most of energy on my next product. and the improvement the bitsteam.
i'm very happy to announce here. next product will begin to use a new name:


any performance index is still a secret. but will be still an open sourced project. and it's original bitsteam will compatibility with present Icarus.

check it here:


-----------------------------------------------------------separation line--------------------------------------------

After months of work, finally I build a FPGA mining cluster using the board "Icarus".
each board has 2 XC6SLX150 -2FGG484I on it, generates a 380MH/s hashing power. 19.2W (full load working) / 3.4W (idle) power consuming (board input, without fan). here a detail spec table:

Technology: Spartan6 -LX150 -2I (or -3C)
speed (MH/s): 380
$: 569 (1) / 469$ (multiple of 30) (-5$ if you do not need the adapter, recommend for bulk orders, they are heavy)
W: 4.5 for idle / 21 for full load. (notice this is the on wall power, include the adapter losses and fan)

different form other's design, I put much more(100+) GPIOs on this board, and planty of interconnect wires between the 2 FPGAs(50+). most of them are routed as diff-pairs. and this board has a 6 layers PCB.

the core-voltage regulator can offer up to 15A current for each FPGA, and the VCCIO(3.3V)/ VCCAUX(2.5V) is 3A each. All capacitors are solid, even I used 2 Tantalum polymer capacitors (2R5TPE680MFL) for the core_voltage.

a simple USB-UART interface is also on board.

any questions are welcome.

PS: English is really not my native language.  


By optimized mining script, Icarus now can mining quite stable and efficiency.

notice that worker 21and22 are 2X HD6870s@295MHs/card for compare.

long pool is supported by MPBM 0.04 and cgminer . mining chain connection is only support 2 FPGAs (1 board).

a better mining control logic and script is still under development, but present system really works well.

Icarus is a GPL open sourced project, all data about Icarus was public, include all SCHs, ISE projects, etc. this design in under the Hardware Design Public License Version 0.04.

This is the link:

This products is highly recommended for fpga developer and hardcore minners.

pre-order price is 569$/each.
DEV kit is 69$/each.
80pin TE 1734037 and 1734099 connector is 10$/ pair. (no use for mining, just for DIY)

240pin DDR-3 DIMM connector is 5$/ each. (no use for mining, just for DIY)

payment accept:
BTC, by the dynamic exchange rate, no extra fees.
mtgox $, no extra fees.
LR account, no extra fees.
paypal , add 10% charge. (because paypal charges nearly 10%)
no amount discount and edu discount.

order details:

1, read and comprehend sections below:
    A: Icarus is a development platform, and it's a good evaluation board. i designed this hardware not only for bitcoin mining, but also for developers.
    B: I'm not good at software. so the original mining software is not good enough, so i suggest to use 3rd party miner instead .
    C: warranty for this product. before shipping, all boards test for weeks. and please test them in 48Hrs after you received them. if any hardware fault happened, you can send it to me and i'll repair it if i can, you only need pay the parts cost and factory cost and shipment cost.
    D: now, chain mode is not support, so a USB cable is needed for each board.
    E: additional @ any time.

2, the 2nd batch is over, and 3rd batch delivery may start at mid- Feb. ~ end of Feb..

3, each buyer can buy 5 boards at most. each board include a USB cable, standard cooling system(heatsink and fan), a 12V/2A wall adapter. boards are programmed and open-box can use.

4, DEV kit include a XILINX platform cable USB, a USB stick with XILINX ISE 13.2/ altium 10/ synplify 2011.03, modelsim 10, all with crack but use as your own risk, commercial use is  illegal in my country (but legal for personal use in my country )) .

5, shipment cost and tax is pay by customer. shipping is using EMS, you can inquire the shipping cost at China EMS official  site:

6, only first batch buyers enjoy a 10% discount. 512$/each!

7, if you want to pre-order, write an e-mail to:   at any time.
    Chinese is the preferred langue, if you can not type chinese, please write it in simple english. any loses caused by mis-understanding will assume by you. in this email, give me your shipment address, i will check it for the shipment cost. please follow this format:

A: what you want, and quantity.
B: your address:
       house number, street number, district:
C: pre-order fee is 0 now/ each

i reserve the rights to choice my customers.

8, the hardware design file is released, so check it and buy it as your own risk. (check my signature)

9, the theory mining hash rate is 380MH/s, guarantied. but will lose some speed lie in network issues. at a good network connection, a real world hashing speed is around 375+ MH/s, and low stale rate.

10, new miner code and software code will release @ github.

11, 1st and 2nd batch boards are all shipped out!

12, small orders payment is BTC or LR or mtgox$. Paypal is supported too, but will cost a extra fee. bulk orders ( >1000$ ) i suggest use wire transfer.

13, before shipment, Icarus has already write a original firmware in its config flash rom, this firmware can be updated using a xilinx platform cable and impact software.  i'm very happy to see third party firmwares and additional components .

14, shipment require a paid in full. if you has doubts ,please use paypal. or "alipay" (some thing like paypal and origin in china ).

15, if you send me a pre-order email, but don't receive a reply in 24H, there must be some trouble on the mail system, i'm  in china ,you know. so please give me a PM.

16, 12V/2A adapter is really enough now. and a 12V/3.33A adapter is prepared for the future.


a simple GUIDE for the new firmware and miner. notice that all 2nd batch boards shipped out with the new firmware.
1, download and install python 2.7

2, install serial / jsonrpc / curses lib into the python27/Lib folder. if you can not find them on the internet , please email me, i will give you them via email.

3, download and install the USB_UART driver, it's PL2303HXD:

4, edit the miner.bat and start to mine!


some proposal of heat control.

the boards and standard cooling system is tested under the ambient temperature of 23 centigrade. if your temp is over 30 centigrade, an additional cooling is recommended. an airflow pass the whole board is a good choice.

notice the power module is very heatproof, but the FPGA will generate error data when they reach a high temperature. a simple method to sense if the temperature is touch the back side of the PCB, just under the FPGA chip. notice before do this you need a electro static discharge.
if you can not hold your finger at  the back side of the FPGA for 3 seconds. then a additional cooling is needed.
the FPGA chip uses whole PCB for heat dissipation, so an airflow passing the PCB is more important than the fan above the heat-sink.

Icarus communication protocol

this specification is for anyone who want to write their own miner or want to add support for icarus.

this device is designed as  "the simplest is the best" idea.
the FPGAs on board or even in chain mode (under development) , act as a single miner to the uart port. when the board connect to a PC, it recognized as a ttyUSB device, or "COM*" on windows PC.
how to operate:
1, no detection is needed (no special command for this).  
2, sending work data:
  each data packet is 512bit (64 byte) length. the format is : 256bits MIDSTATE + 160bits fill bits(can be any value) + 96bits data (last 12 bytes of block header). over.
3, sending back the results:
  if the fpga found a valid nonce, they will send back the 32bits nonce result immediately. no any query protocol is implemented here.

so a simple work process is described below:

send a work pass the COM port, start a timer and a listener on the COM port.
if any data send back by the COM port, then this is a valid nonce. push a new work to the FPGA and send the result back to the pool.
if no data send back in 11.3 seconds (a full cover time on 32bit nonce range by 380MH/s speed), send another work.

some point:
1,FPGA will start the calculate when you push a work to them, even they are busy. that means if a block has been found, the miner could push a new immediately to overlap the old work in the fpga.
2,the 2 fpgas on one board will distribute the 32bit nonce to calculate. one will calculate the 0 ~ 7FFFFFFF, and the other will cover the 80000000 ~ FFFFFFFF. so if you want to do any performance measure on this device, please notice this feature.
3,FPGA will stop work when: a valid nonce has been found or 32 bits nonce range is completely calculated. notice that it's possible for 2 FPGA both find valid nonce in the meantime, the 2 valid nonce will all be send back.

3rd batch is going smoothly. the production will start around Feb.14, and the shipment will start around Feb.20. maybe sooner or later.
due to lack of spartan-6 LX150 FPGA chips, order a large quantity of FPGAs take a longer time.
all other components are on their way and will on my hand this week.
i delayed some bulk orders, so if you just order for a few boards, you will not be affected. the shipment date will around Feb.20
i will inform you when the boards are come out, if you pre-ordered before. in order to simplify the ordering process, I decide to cancel the pre-order payment flow for small quantity orders . I just start the production, and you just need to pay once after the final test, when the boards are ready for shipping.

sorry every one. my plan is start and finish the production today (100+ boards only need 1-2 days for production), but one of my spartan6 package(120 chips) stuck at the customs until now, it should be in my hands the day before yesterday.
i contact with my supplier and they sad the pack will arrive my home around next Tuesday.
so it looks like our plan must delay for about 1 week.

I am very sorry for the delay caused by force majeure. Embarrassed

3rd batch production start today. SMT is over, and the DIP soldering needs 2 more days. at my request, i got 5 of them today, and will test them tonight. 3rd batch have some BOM change.

5 boards running happily.


i already send out mails to any pre-order BEFORE 2/5 . shipment is over today.

i will start to process pre-order after 2/6 soon.

may additional @ any time.
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