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June 17, 2021, 11:23:06 PM *
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1  Bitcoin / Hardware wallets / Re: Why do people say hardware wallets are unhackable? on: Today at 07:52:15 PM
What is the Malware going to do?
Anything. Encrypt your entire hard drive and demand a ransom in bitcoin, which the attacker knows you own since you own a Ledger wallet. Spread throughout your home network and encrypt all your devices. Install clipboard malware. Steal your bank details. Empty your hot wallets. Use your webcam to record you. Grant remote access to your system to an attacker.

Although it could affect the operation of your hardware wallet as explained above, it doesn't necessarily need to. You should never plug any unknown USB device in to your main computer.
2  Bitcoin / Hardware wallets / Re: Safepal,Ledger,Trezor keep a backup of my 24 words and transfer to their server? on: Today at 07:23:57 PM
What software should I use to create an offline wallet? Looking forward to your advice. Thank you!
There are a number of methods I have used in the past to create offline/airgapped/paper wallets.

The easiest is to use a reputable, open source wallet, in which you have examined the source code or are confident that the community have done so if you do not have the technical knowledge to do so yourself. Electrum is the obvious choice here. Download it only from, transfer it to your offline device, verify the download before installing it, and then install it and create your wallet. Once you've done this and backed up your seed phrase on paper, you can export the master public key, transfer it to your online device, and create a paired watch only wallet.

If you want to go a step further, then generate your entropy yourself. Flipping a coin 256 times is the simplest method, but you can also roll a standard 6 sided die. Download, transfer it to your offline device, verify the download before using it, and then enter your entropy to generate a seed phrase. Even better, turn the entropy in to a seed phrase yourself by mapping against the BIP39 word list. Then use that seed phrase to generate a wallet.
3  Bitcoin / Hardware wallets / Re: Ledger fake device Warning! on: Today at 12:56:25 PM
By and large,  being flashed with new firmware, Ledger can be considered to be safe device. If upgrading fails you might suspect that the wallet was  either counterfeited or tampered.
If you think that the device in your hands is malicious, then the last thing you want to do is plug it in to your main computer to attempt to update the firmware. Doing so allows any malicious software on the tampered device to infect your computer, never mind showing you fake prompts asking for your seed phrase.

If you think the device has been tampered with, you should open it to compare the look of the hardware within by following Ledger's guide here:

If you want to plug it in to a computer, plug it in to a live OS, preferably on a secondary computer which you don't use for anything important.
4  Bitcoin / Wallet software / Re: Looking for a working configuration for a BTCrecover seedlist token file on: Today at 07:44:23 AM
Yeah, I think the best way to do thisnis going to be to lock words 7 and 8, and then lock the last known word to slot 3. Then, as you say, you need to include three lines of every word on the word list. This should give 8.6 billion possibilities. Run that to completion, and if no success then move the locked word from slot 3 to slot 4 and repeat. Do the same again moving it to slot 5, then to slot 6. Then reverse words 7 and 8 and do another 4 runs with the last word in slot 3, 4, 5, then 6.

I think this is the best way of approaching this without making your tokens file overly complicated, and also means if you crash or freeze you don't havenl to repeat everything from the very start.
5  Other / Politics & Society / Re: #SuperStraight on: June 16, 2021, 07:39:17 PM
Wait, what? The gays get deadly rainbow laser breath? That's a sweet superpower.

Here's the actual issue with that comic though (ignoring the fact that it is a straw man, and a particularly poor one at that): Nobody actually cares if you aren't attracted to a particular gender or a particular type of sex. Everyone has their own preferences, that's fine. The problem is with individuals trying to marginalize, oppress, criminalize, or even kill people based on their gender or type of sex they have.

Like, just don't be a dick. It's not difficult.

Watching these scenes just make me puke. (homo porn)
Cool. So don't watch them. No one is forcing you to. You don't get to oppress other people based on your feelings, though.

*female vs female is straight enough to me.
I mean, it's not, but at least you are starting to realize that sexuality is a completely individual thing and you have no right to tell other consenting adults what they can and cannot do.
6  Bitcoin / Electrum / Re: Can I use a 12 word seed extension and store it separately? on: June 16, 2021, 11:43:32 AM
It all depends on how much knowledge of the passphrase the attacker has.

If they know it is 12 words from the BIP39 wordlist, then there are 204812 = 5.44*1039 possibilities.
If they know it is a valid 12 word BIP39 seed, then it is 2128 = 3.40*1038.
If they know it is 12 English words (assuming 150,000 English words) then it is 150,00012 = 1.30*1062.
If they know it is 12 four character strings, with each string drawing from the full range of 95 ASCII characters, then it is 9548 = 8.53*1094.
7  Bitcoin / Hardware wallets / Re: Safepal,Ledger,Trezor keep a backup of my 24 words and transfer to their server? on: June 16, 2021, 11:36:19 AM
but what you can do is to generate your own seed words offline and then import them in your hardware wallet.
If a hardware wallet is programmed to secretly transmit your seed phrase to an external server, then it probably isn't going to matter whether that seed phrase was generated on the device itself or imported from elsewhere.

It is possible, however, to only use a hardware wallet with an airgapped computer. Connect it to an online computer the first time you use it to verify it and update any firmware, etc., then connect it to a permanently airgapped computer, generate a new seed phrase for it (using an external entropy source if desired), and then pair it with a wallet like Electrum to transfer transactions back and forth for signing and broadcasting.
8  Bitcoin / Wallet software / Re: Looking for a working configuration for a BTCrecover seedlist token file on: June 16, 2021, 09:20:32 AM
My latest hangup is it completes too quickly and I have no confidence my seedlist token file was configured right
Have you tried using the --listpass command to have btcrecover print all the seed phrase combinations it is trying rather than actually trying them?

BTCRecover can also print the seeds that will be tested via the --listpass command, something that can be useful for debugging your tokenlist

Do you want to share you current tokens file (with the words obfuscated, of course) for us to take a look?
9  Bitcoin / Bitcoin Discussion / Re: Will the Lightning Network Solve ALL Scalability Issues? on: June 16, 2021, 08:52:09 AM
We'll probably have to move into another smarter way like using 1 multi-sig address for a family; each member could have their own balance in their phone, but they'd all spend from the same channel.
Yes, this will be possible using a channel factory as I mentioned before. Eltoo will allow the creation of such multi-user channels built upon a single channel, and Schnorr signatures will remove the limit of seven users on such a channel.

Technology should never be too complicated on the "user" side... or adoption will be hampered.
Eltoo actually makes things simpler by replacing LN-Penalty. The end user doesn't need to understand the tech (how many actually understand how mining works or how transactions are created?), as long as their wallet can present it in an easy to use manner.
10  Bitcoin / Electrum / Re: Can I use a 12 word seed extension and store it separately? on: June 16, 2021, 08:28:03 AM
If I break the 24 word seed with 256 bits into two 12 word parts, can I safely store them in two separate locations like I can with the seed extension?
You could, but using a 12 word seed and 12 word extension is preferable to splitting a 24 word seed in half. If an attacker finds half a 24 word seed, they will not be able to recover it, and so will know to keep looking the other half. If an attacker finds either your 12 word seed or extension, they will be able to recover a wallet. Further, if you put a small amount of funds in these two wallets, then if gives you plausible deniability that these are all the coins you own if someone finds one of your back ups or forces you to reveal your wallets.

The resulting private keys are all 128 bits regardless.
Correct. The maximum security of a bitcoin private key is 128 bits. This is due to the characteristics of the secp256k1 curve which bitcoin uses.
11  Bitcoin / Electrum / Re: Can I use a 12 word seed extension and store it separately? on: June 15, 2021, 07:47:56 PM
If I use Electrum to generate a 12 word seed, and then generate a new wallet with a different seed, can I use the first 12 words as the seed extension for the new wallet?

Would this effectively double my entropy?

Can I store the 12 word seed and the 12 word seed extension in two different places safely?
This is the only way you should store them. Storing both your seed phrase and your seed extension together renders the seed extension nearly pointless, since if an attacker compromises your back up they immediately have both and can take your coins.

Are there any major flaws in this method?
Not really. Using a seed extension is a good idea, and by using a randomly generated seed phrase as the extension you can be sure that it is complex enough to be resistant to brute forcing. The only issues would be human error - getting confused as to which is which, making a mistake when writing them down, etc.

Would using a multisig wallet be better?
That depends on what you are trying to achieve. A seed phrase with an extension provides protection against one of those two back ups being compromised, but doesn't protect against your wallet itself being compromised. It does however keep your transactions small, and can also give you plausible deniability (depending on how you use it). A 2-of-3 (for example) multi-sig protects against one of your back ups being compromised, and protects against one of your wallets being compromised, but requires more complex back ups and results in larger transaction sizes (although not for long once Taproot is activated).
12  Bitcoin / Bitcoin Discussion / Re: Will the Lightning Network Solve ALL Scalability Issues? on: June 15, 2021, 02:11:19 PM
Excuse me from being a LN newbie. Can't you open 1 channel funding 4 multi-sig addresses?
I'm not entirely sure what you are asking here - I think you might have your terminology wrong.

It is possible to open multiple channels with one transaction, if that is what you mean, although not yet commonly done. It is also possible for more than 2 users to open a single channel by using something called Channel Factories, which allows more channels to be opened and closed between all these users without requiring any further transactions to be broadcast to the base layer, but I don't know if this has actually been successfully done by anyone yet.
13  Bitcoin / Bitcoin Discussion / Re: Will the Lightning Network Solve ALL Scalability Issues? on: June 15, 2021, 11:08:52 AM
The Lightning Network is said to be able to take the transactions per second figure of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies to unprecedented heights of at least 1 million transactions per second.
Lightning could process this number of transactions, yes, but the limiting factor is on-boarding everyone on to Lightning as I explained above.

Can't I receive money from you through LN without having to open a channel? For example, a family of four wouldn't have to open four different payment channels, the father could open one and then send off-chain funds to the other members.
You don't have to open a channel directly with me, no, but you still have to open a channel to someone. If the other three members of the family open a channel to the father, and he opens a channel to me, then I can send money to any of them, but the 4 of them have still had to open 4 channels.
14  Bitcoin / Bitcoin Discussion / Re: Will the Lightning Network Solve ALL Scalability Issues? on: June 15, 2021, 09:41:13 AM
Bitcoin in its current state is not capable of supporting world-wide adoption of Lightning. Other solutions will need to be developed.
Just to put some numbers on this: Let's assume all the following (which is completely unrealistic):

  • Everyone uses Taproot
  • Every channel opening transaction is one-input-one-ouput
  • Every transaction being made is a Lightning channel being opened, and no one makes any other type of transaction
  • Every block is optimally full
  • Everyone only opens a single channel which they keep open forever

Even assuming all that, then at most you can open 9,000 channels per block, meaning it would take 17 years just to let everyone in the world open a single channel. As soon as you consider that obviously some people need to have multiple channels open for Lightning to work, and obviously people will want to close channels, open new ones, top up their channels, and so on, then that number increases exponentially.

Lightning is great, but it cannot support global adoption without further changes to the base layer.
15  Bitcoin / Bitcoin Discussion / Re: What happens if the internet goes down? on: June 15, 2021, 09:28:42 AM
If the internet went down locally, in a region, state, or even a country, people in that area can still receive blocks via satellite to stay up to date with the bitcoin network. There are also a variety of methods which have been used to broadcast transactions without the original user having an internet connection. Local networks, mesh networks, radio waves, phone calls, even physical storage, have all been used to transmit a signed transaction to someone with an internet connection who can then broadcast it to the network.

If the internet went down globally for more than a day, then bitcoin would be the least of anybody's concerns. Not dying from interrupted food and water processing and supply chains would be pretty high up the list instead.
16  Bitcoin / Press / Re: [2021-06-12] Bitcoin Taproot upgrade finally locked-in, activation set for Novem on: June 15, 2021, 08:59:17 AM
What's accounting for the difference in virtual size between segwit and taproot txs? the witness discount being less effective, I would suggest. if it was exactly 2 vbytes difference, then that would make sense
A Segwit input is larger than a Taproot input thanks to the smaller signature and absence of including the public key with Taproot. An average Segwit input has 107 bytes of witness data, made up of item count (1), signature length (1), signature (71), pubkey length (1), pubkey (33), whereas Taproot has 65 bytes made up of signature length (1), Schnorr signature (64). Since this is witness data, this difference of 42 bytes equates to Taproot inputs being 10.5 vbytes smaller.

However, a Schnorr public key is 12 bytes larger than a public key hash, making a Taproot output larger.

So all in, for a 1-input-1-output transaction, Taproot will be 1.5 vbytes larger than Segwit (although this can fluctuate slightly depending on the size of the signature fluctuating by a byte or two).
17  Bitcoin / Electrum / Re: Electrum rejects wallet file on: June 14, 2021, 08:04:14 PM
You don't need to log in at all if you have the .json file.

Go to this link:
Drag and drop your .json file in to the box
Enter your first password when prompted
Enter your second password when prompted
You will then be asked to set a new password for the wallet
You will then be redirected to a new log in page for the new wallet - enter the password you just set
You can then use the wallet to transfer the funds or export the seed phrase or individual private keys in to Electrum. Either way, you should empty out the wallet as soon as you have restored it and send the coins to a new, secured wallet.
18  Bitcoin / Electrum / Re: Electrum rejects wallet file on: June 14, 2021, 07:53:24 PM
No, they have locked me out of my account.
It shouldn't matter. You should still be able to upload the .json file and decrypt it to access your private keys.

Alternatively, you can decrypt it offline on your own machine using their offline decryption tool available here:

This all assumes you remember the password to the wallet. If you don't, then you'll want to use a tool such as btcrecover to try to brute force your password.
19  Bitcoin / Press / Re: [2021-06-12] Bitcoin Taproot upgrade finally locked-in, activation set for Novem on: June 14, 2021, 07:36:36 PM
that's a generalisation at best
Oh, absolutely. What I was hoping someone could provide would be something along the lines of "X transactions in the last 1000 blocks were multi-sig, using an average of Y vbytes of space. If all these swapped to Taproot, it would save an average of Z vbytes of space in each block".

But regular transactions will save just 8 bytes using 64 byte schnorr sigs, which is less than 5%. Sadly, no possible gains to be had from sig additivity or excised script branches when there's just one signature and one script Smiley
The reduction of 8 bytes (actually 9 if you include the absent first byte on the public key) is only when comparing legacy signatures to Taproot signatures. If you compare an entire legacy transaction to an entire Taproot transaction, then (assuming no multi-sig) your standard 1-input-1-output legacy transaction is 192 bytes/192 vbytes, with the equivalent Taproot transaction being somewhere around 178 bytes/111 vbytes, for a saving of 81 vbytes. When you compare a Taproot transaction to a native Segwit transaction, the Taproot transaction (although smaller in terms of raw bytes) is actually marginally larger by 1 or 2 vbytes.
20  Other / Beginners & Help / Re: Centralized and kyc platforms can pose risks in the future on: June 14, 2021, 05:37:07 PM
all KYC information that collected on a centralized exchange or a custodial wallet, they are on a separate database that highly encrypted and no one can steal on it unless if there's an inside job or the owner itself will sell that information of our personal data that has been collected.
Well, that's just not true at all. Every large exchange uses third parties to process and store your KYC data. Your data is transferred to these companies (sometimes several different ones) and you have no idea how securely it is transferred, how securely it is stored, or who has access to it. KYC data is frequently stolen without any sign of an inside job, even to the largest exchanges such as Binance, who were hacked for thousands of their users' information. And yes, a lot of exchanges or their associated third party processors have been caught selling data too.

It should have transparency of their team and as possible there's no hiding on a website owner.
Irrelevant. Knowing the people behind the site does not make your data any safer.
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