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641  Economy / Games and rounds / Re: I will fund anyone with 110.000 Satoshi who can copy Bitcoin address. on: August 31, 2016, 05:39:33 PM
642  Economy / Games and rounds / Re: DirectBet Soccer Prediction Game *** Win Free Bets ! *** Free to Enter ! on: August 31, 2016, 05:38:14 PM
HT : Germany 0 - 0 Finland

FT : Germany 1 - 0 Finland
643  Economy / Digital goods / Re: [WTS] Blog + Domain + Hosting on: August 31, 2016, 05:33:05 PM
I dont understand why you are selling it if you can earn from it in a long run? You can get 0.07 if your blog has good niche and good quality post after few months.

I am selling because I don't have time to post new articles. I am selling the hosting plan as well because I don't need it for another website.
644  Economy / Digital goods / Re: [WTS] Blog + Domain + Hosting on: August 30, 2016, 07:06:29 PM
Blog URL please.

PM sent!
645  Economy / Digital goods / Re: [WTS] Blog + Domain + Hosting on: August 30, 2016, 01:10:06 PM
Always available for interested users.
646  Economy / Games and rounds / Re: Heads or Tails on: August 30, 2016, 01:07:49 PM
How to grow plants without water:

By now there are already many farmers, all over the world,
owners of both small gardens and big farms, who have
embarked on the road of Waterless Farming. Cooperatives
dedicated to these techniques spring up all over the world;
online blogs, forums, websites and YouTube channels are
created to talk about these arguments; more and more books
are written on this subject matter.
But, in spite of this, Waterless Farming techniques are nearly
unknown to the general public, still convinced that huge
amounts of water are required to obtain good harvests.
So the goal I want to achieve with this book is to make Waterless
Farming techniques known to a higher number of
people, because–in my humble opinion– Waterless Farming
could be able to solve many many problems and critical issues
in the world.
For example, Waterless Farming could contribute to solving
the problem of world hunger, allowing to till even in world areas
which are arid or not very fertile. Moreover, as we already
said, some Waterless Farming techniques allow to till
the soil without the need to use agricultural machinery (or, at
least, to minimize their use). This means that it is possible to
practice agriculture obtaining good harvests even in poor areas,
where people cannot buy modern agricultural machinery.
Furthermore, Waterless Farming techniques would put a halt
to a whole series of environmental issues resulting from the
use of water in agriculture. There are a lot of environmental
issues caused by the use of damaging agricultural techniques,
but in this context, I am going to essentially talk about two of
them: the use of fossil water in agriculture and the use of
river water in agriculture.
Fossil water is a kind of water remained sealed in an aquifer
for a period of time much longer than the normal water cycle,
staying in this underground place for thousands, millions or
even billions of years. When geological changes sealed the
aquifer layer from further recharges, water remained
‘trapped’ inside the layer, and so it is called fossil water. The
exploitation of this kind of water is considered similar to the
one of mining industries since it is a non-renewable resource.
In the last few years – in many places in the world – complex
engineering systems have been made, in order to take this
kind of water from the subsoil and then use it in agriculture.
Consequently, in a nutshell, a resource accumulated over millions
of years is wasted for a few years of harvests. How the
heck could we endorse a behavior like this? Apart from being
ethically objectionable and devoid of any respect for Mother
Nature, it is also economically foolish, since in most cases
fossil water quantity which is in aquifers is sufficient to irrigate
the fields barely for less than 10 years. Once extracted
all the water from the subsoil, it takes thousands of years for
this precious liquid to fill up the layer again. Therefore the
draining of these fossil aquifers could provoke the abandonment
of lands and cultivation in several areas where these
kind of methods are used; consequently, products which at
present grow using fossil water will be imported. More impressive
examples of fossil water use in agriculture can be
found in China, Iran, India, The U.S.A., Saudi Arabia
, Jordan  and Egypt.

647  Economy / Games and rounds / Re: DirectBet American Football Prediction Game ! Win Free Bets ! Free to Enter ! on: August 28, 2016, 08:40:51 PM
Cincinnati 20 @ 17 Jacksonville
648  Economy / Games and rounds / Re: DirectBet Soccer Prediction Game *** Win Free Bets ! *** Free to Enter ! on: August 28, 2016, 05:58:14 PM
HT: Athletic Bilbao 0 v 0 Barcelona
FT: Athletic Bilbao 1 v 0 Barcelona
649  Economy / Games and rounds / Re: DirectBet Soccer Prediction Game *** Win Free Bets ! *** Free to Enter ! on: August 28, 2016, 01:46:23 PM
HT: Man City 0 - 0 West Ham United
FT: Man City 1 - 0 West Ham United
650  Economy / Games and rounds / Re: DirectBet Soccer Prediction Game *** Win Free Bets ! *** Free to Enter ! on: August 27, 2016, 07:34:30 PM
HT Philadelphia 0 vs 0 Kansas City
FT Philadelphia 1 vs 0 Kansas City
651  Economy / Digital goods / Re: [WTS] Blog + Domain + Hosting on: August 27, 2016, 07:20:53 PM
ahmedjadoon doesn't want it anymore, so feel free to contact me if you are interested.
652  Economy / Games and rounds / Re: DirectBet Soccer Prediction Game *** Win Free Bets ! *** Free to Enter ! on: August 27, 2016, 08:43:35 AM
HT Tottenham 0 vs 0 Liverpool
FT Tottenham 1 vs 0 Liverpool
653  Economy / Games and rounds / Re: Heads or Tails on: August 26, 2016, 07:13:22 AM

Hot Peppers Benefits:

If you like to put hot spices or hot sauce on your food, you may be doing yourself a favor. Capsaicin, the alkaloid responsible for the spicy flavor in hot peppers, may offer benefits in the treatment of some diseases, according to an article published in 2011 in the journal "Molecules." Peppers that contain capsaicin include jalapenos, habaneros, cayenne, serrano, cherry peppers and even bell peppers. Eating peppers in the capsaicin family can benefit you because they play a role in digestive health, cardiovascular health and in long-term cancer prevention.

They Increase Circulation
When you eat hot peppers, the capsaicin in the peppers stimulates your nerves in a way that favors increased blood flow. This effect was tested on rats in a 1993 study published in the "American Journal of Physiology." Researchers increased the blood pressure in the veins of rats, inducing hypertension. One group of rats was injected with capsaicin and another group was given a placebo. A control group was administered nothing at all. When all the rats were tested for their cardiovascular health, the capsaicin rats' blood circulated similarly to the control group, whereas the placebo group had constricted blood flow. This shows that hot peppers increase circulation and might benefit people with high blood pressure.

They Lower Cholesterol
Another way hot peppers can improve your heart and circulatory health is by regulating cholesterol levels. In a 2013 study published in the "European Journal of Nutrition," capsaicin was found to reduce cholesterol and improve the lipoprotein profile in hamsters that were fed a high-cholesterol diet. It was found that capsaicin had the effect of decreasing cholesterol absorption, allowing excess cholesterol to be eliminated from the body. This suggests hot peppers may play a role in helping you keep your cholesterol levels in a healthy range.

They Improve Digestion
In traditional medicine, hot spices have been used as digestive stimulants and to cure digestive ailments. A 2010 study published in the journal "Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism" looked at the effect of capsaicin on the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the stomach and intestines. Researchers found that it improved the functioning of all these antioxidant enzymes, showing capsaicin can protect the stomach and intestines while favoring digestion.

They May Help Prevent Cancer
Studies have also shown that capsaicin plays a role in cancer prevention. Researchers have demonstrated capsaicin hinders the growth of prostate tumors, meaning that spicing your food could prevent the onset of prostate cancer. In a 1997 study reported in "Anticancer Research," scientists introduced tobacco to hamsters to induce cancerous lung tumors. They gave one group capsaicin and the other group a placebo. The capsaicin group experienced less tumor growth in the lungs than the placebo group, suggesting that hot peppers may also help prevent lung cancer in those who smoke or live in polluted areas.
654  Economy / Games and rounds / Re: Heads or Tails on: August 25, 2016, 05:33:29 PM
Since you can't change what you don't measure, the seedstock industry is seeking new ways to measure valuable traits fot commercial cattlemen.
Genetic predictions in the form of EPDs (expected progeny difference) have been fully implemented for 30 years. Centered on growth traits, these predictions have led to tremendous genetic improvements not imagined when the only selection tool was visual appraisal. The industry went on to tackle carcass traits with EPDs, and for the last 20 years, seedstock producers have enjoyed similar genetic progress.

However, many areas of harder-to-measure traits such as reproduction have lagged far behind despite their economic importance, and objectively describing traits like disease resistance and soundness have also been sorely lacking. Genomics have also become extremely important tools to the industry, but have strained our EPD models based on 30-year-old technology, which has not allowed genomics to fully reach the potential that they can play in objective selection. This article will cover the advances in objectively describing fertility and novel traits as well as the new EPD models, which will finally fully leverage the information genomics have to offer. Fertility traits Reproductive traits have been shown to be the most economically-important traits to commercial producers, and the seedstock industry is just beginning to objectively describe reproduction. This is because in order to describe female reproduction, breed associations need to have an inventory-based breed registry which annually accounts for the production of every female in every calving season. This has long been talked about, but implemented slowly by many associations.

Red Angus has been the notable exception going to mandatory total herd reporting in 1995, which featured a spring and fall calving inventory. This allowed the Red Angus Association to release the industry’s first reproductive sire summary in 2002, which among other genetic predictions, featured EPDs for heifer pregnancy and Stayability. Even with this history, Dr. Mark Enns of Colorado State University says, “We have just scratched the surface on reproduction and fitness traits.”

The first female reproductive EPD was Stayability, which is defined as a female already in the cow herd producing a calf at six years or older. The first model was very simplistic with only two meaningful data points; having a calf before six years of age, and then again at six or older. This meant with the Stayability EPD, sires were quite old before high accuracy was achieved, past the sire’s normal productive lifespan. This model has been incrementally advanced in recent years, which has allowed accuracy to build earlier in an animal’s life. However, new models for producing Stayability or longevity EPDs have been sorely needed.

The research community has answered this need by introducing a new statistical model using a procedure called random regression, which will greatly advance the well-understood Stayability EPD or allow the calculation of longevity EPDs. This statistical model tests the reproduction of a cow each year during her productive lifetime and allows for unknown values when inventory-based reporting is not fully implemented. A number of breeds are on the cusp of implementing this new procedure, which will greatly advance the industry’s genetic description of sustained fertility.

International Genetic Solutions (IGS), which calculates multibreed EPDs for 12 breed associations, plans on implementing a multibreed Stayability EPD on the same base and scale in the coming year. Included in IGS’ effort are Simmental, Red Angus, Shorthorn, Gelbvieh, Limousin, Chinana and Maine-Anjou, as well as their Canadian counterparts. Hereford and Angus are looking at calculating longevity EPDs, and Brangus and Beefmaster are considering a Stayability EPD in the future.

Where Angus and Hereford plan on a longevity EPD, and the breeds associated with IGS will continue with the well-understood Stayability EPD, both methods will be based on an economicallyimportant trait that accounts for any reason a cow leaves the herd and/or fails to report a calf. The primary reason will always be reproduction, but can also include production or soundness issues, so they are currently investigating feet and leg scoring and other fitness traits, which they hope to add as correlated traits.

Another relevant fertility trait being pursued is heifer pregnancy. This is described as a heifer that is exposed to become pregnant successfully entering the herd. With the implementation of inventorybased systems, heifer pregnancy EPDs have been implemented by Angus and Gelbvieh following Red Angus’ lead, and it is on the drawing board for other breeds like Hereford. IGS is also working on a multibreed heifer pregnancy EPD and expects to release it in the near future.

As breeds like Angus gather more phenotypes, genomics will play an increasing role in adding information to the accuracy of the trait. For instance, due to the larger phenotypic database in Angus’ latest genomic recalibration, the correlation between genomic information and phenotypic data jumped from .45 to .62, which means genomics will add significantly more accuracy to their heifer pregnancy EPD.

Novel traits

A number of breeds are currently looking at a host of novel traits including soundness and disease resistance. Perhaps none is more economically important than the disease resistance work being conducted by a group of universities.

According to Enns at Colorado State University, bovine respiratory disease (BRD) causes over $1 billion in losses to our industry annually. Luckily, BRD susceptibility is a heritable trait (.18 to .21), so genetic progress can be made on lowering BRD incidence. The genomic companies are also working with the universities to identify gene markers to add to their seedstock panels, which will increase the accuracy of a BRD EPD. The methodology for producing BRD EPDs is also straightforward, so the key to producing an EPD is the collection of phenotypes. A whitepaper has been presented to Beef Improvement Federation (BIF), and proposed guidelines for collecting data will be approved this year. Once the breed associations have the guidelines for collecting data, an EPD and genomic enhancement can be achieved in the next couple of years. To get a jump on the collection of field data many of the breed associations are collecting BRD data in their structured progeny tests on many of their high-use sires.

Feet and leg scoring has been receiving increased interest by many breed associations. For example, Gelbvieh, Simmental, and Red Angus have an active multi-year research project going on with Kansas State University to determine the heritability of the trait and candidate gene markers. Angus is leading the industry in collecting field data and hopes to come out with a genetic prediction as soon as this fall. All of their goals are to add it to their Stayability/longevity models to help add accuracy to the genetic predictions. Other associations are looking at a longer horizon before they produce feet and leg predictions.

Using genetic predictions, teat and udder quality has long been objectively selected for in the dairy industry, so the methodology is well understood. In beef breeds, Hereford has led the industry in the production of these EPDs, and they have found the traits to

be moderately heritable and teat and udder scores to be highly correlated. Red Angus is also among the many breeds currently working on the traits and is in the process of calculating genetic parameters at Colorado State University needed to produce a genetic prediction. Simmental and Gelbvieh are also active in this effort. Breeds hope to incorporate the genetic predictions as correlated traits to add accuracy to their Stayability model.

In the West, certain breeds run at altitude are susceptible to high altitude disease, more commonly known as brisket disease, which can be fatal and may also be associated with feedlot death in cattle nearing market readiness. Colorado State University has been actively engaged in working with Angus cattle on producing an EPD on the indicator trait pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) because cattle with higher PAP scores are more likely to suffer from brisket disease. PAP is a heritable trait (.25 to .40), so genetic advancement can be made through a genetic prediction. The technology to produce a PAP EPD has been fully developed and as soon as the affected breeds collect field data, EPDs should become available in a timely manner.

Genomics and EPDs

The seedstock industry is in the process of making a quantum leap in methodology on how it incorporates genomics into genetic predictions. Currently the breeds with genomically-enhanced EPDs (GE- EPDs) include Angus, Beefmaster, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, Santa Gertrudis and Simmental. The primary method used to achieve GE- EPDs is a two-step method.

Other breeds and universities are working on environmental adaptability traits. Hair shedding is necessary for productive cattle especially in hot environments and for cattle grazing fescue. Angus Genetics Incorporated (AGI) is currently researching hair shedding and has already found it to be very heritable (.42). This means genetic improvement can be made on the trait and EPDs can easily be produced once field data is gathered. Other universities are looking to see if there is any value in regional EPD calculation, and Mississippi State University is investigating the effect of hair color on productivity in hot environments. This whole area of environmental adaptability has significant potential to improve the objective description of cattle.

First a molecular breeding value (MBV) is calculated and then the MBVs are used to enhance the EPDs calculated from the existing EPD models. This is because genomics have been treated as an add-on to how EPDs have traditionally been calculated. This has many drawbacks, but has been the most expedient way to achieve GE-EPDs.

Currently there are four major companies calculating EPDs: Agriculture Business Research Institute (ABRI) in Australia calculates EPDs for several U.S. breeds including Hereford, Salers, and South Devon; AGI, which does Angus, Charolais, and Senepol as well as Canadian Black Angus and Charolais; IGS, which does the genetic predictions for 12 American and Canadian breed associations; and Livestock Genetic Services, LLC (LGS), which calculates genetic predictions for Brangus, Beefmaster, Santa Gertrudis, Braunvieh, and Akauski.

IGS and ABRI achieve GE-EPDs by blending the MBVs into the EPDs post analysis. The major drawback of this method is that it does not allow the genomic information to flow up and down the pedigree to parents and progeny. AGI uses the MBV as a correlated trait much as birth weight is a correlated trait with weaning weight, which allows genomic information to flow up and down the pedigree. This is a step forward, but does not make full use of all the information genomics have to offer.

The answer to these drawbacks is to design completely new models with genomics as a main component. This has already been achieved in dairy, swine, and poultry, and has been implemented in beef by LGS with American (Bos Indicus influenced) breeds. This new “One Step” process is very computationally intensive. With One Step, all the markers from a genomic panel are added to an EPD equation, significantly increasing the size of the mathematical problem to be solved. For each animal you still have all the phenotypic and pedigree data, but add approximately 50,000 markers per animal that is genotyped, exponentially increasing the size of the mathematical problem to produce EPDs.

The One Step method described above was first pioneered in beef by John Genho’s company, LGS. According to Genho, the major advantage of One Step is that through genotypes the actual pedigree relationship becomes known. For instance, theoretically full siblings can be 0-100 percent related according to the way genes are randomly passed from a sire and dam to their progeny. With genomics, the amount of relationship is known, which according to Genho, makes single step GE-EPDs much more precise.

The concept of EPD precision can be demonstrated by a genetic prediction calculated from two contemporary groups of equal size, but one containing biased data and the other with unbiased data. Each will come up with an EPD for the trait in question with the same accuracy since the same amount of information went into the calculation. However, with Charolais.

Hardware hardships

One of the challenges of using these new ways of calculating EPDs is that the calculations are massive, but with new computer hardware this is now possible.

IGS, which calculates GE- EPDs for more breeds than any other company, and ABRI are taking a whole new approach to One Step genomically-enhanced EPDs using a model called BOLT (Biometry Open Language Tools) developed by THETA Solutions, LLC, founded by geneticists Drs. Bruce Golden and Dorian Garrick. Their method is much more computationally intensive, utilizing equations that were only thought to be practical with small data sets and nothing as large as a breed database. Interestingly enough, they solved this problem using processing units designed for computer games—called graphic processing units or GPUs—which have huge processing capabilities. When they stack multiple GPUs, it exponentially increases computing power, but the key is to have software that can use the multiple processors simultaneously to solve an equation. The power of this hardware is demonstrated by being able to calculate traditional EPD procedures in less than 24 minutes instead of the 24 hours IGS now takes. With this processing power these much more intensive computations associated with BOLT can be achieved.

Like the Georgia methodology, the BOLT software takes advantage of the actual genotypic relationship between animals, but also allows markers to be weighted or discarded depending on their effect on a trait, which further improves a genetic prediction’s precision as well as accuracy. In addition, the BOLT software computationally gives a more reliable estimate of accuracy and can even produce accuracies for indexes.

ABRI and IGS plan on implementing the BOLT software this fall. Although it does not have the track record in production like the Georgia model, BOLT is fully developed and tested, and due to the speed of calculation will easily allow for more frequent evaluations, daily if desired. Angus already does weekly analysis, so implementing One Step will not be a concern from a data management perspective. However, IGS plans on going to a more frequent analysis when it implements BOLT, as does Hereford, making database management the step they are working on now. This is especially challenging for IGS, which deals with 12 breed associations running a multibreed breed analysis producing EPDs on the same base and scale for all breeds in order to facilitate planned crossbreeding systems.

Merging and cross referencing these divergent breeds’—and their hybrids’—databases from 12 different breed associations is a tremendous logistical problem. IGS is currently testing a web portal system and universal animal identification system. The EPD analysis will be done weekly, and various breeds can update their EPDs as frequently as they desire. Red Angus and Simmental have committed to weekly runs starting sometime this year while others might choose to have their EPDs calculated less frequently. Hereford at ABRI will also be using BOLT and in the next year expects to move from a monthly to a weekly analysis.


The future of objective selection is exciting and foretells heights previously unimagined. Traits of significant economic importance related to soundness and fertility are on the cusp of being fully objectively described with EPDs. A genetic prediction for something like bovine respiratory disease will have a huge economic impact on the industry and is just one of a number of novel traits on the threshold of having EPDs. New models will allow the industry to fully leverage all the information genomics have to offer. This will lead to a more profitable and sustainable industry.

Entering A New Era In Objective Selection:

655  Economy / Games and rounds / Re: Heads or Tails on: August 25, 2016, 02:09:34 PM

Help the Birds:

My garden hedge is full of empty nests. The blackbirds have fledged, twice, and so have the dunnocks. Successfully fending off sparrowhawks and cats, their exhausted parents are now enjoying a well-earned holiday. In the fields beyond our home, though, parents still slave away, feeding baby bullfinches, linnets and yellowhammers tucked in the hedges that grace our countryside.

As well as the usual predators, every August these declining species have had to fend off another ravenous monster: the hedge-trimmer. This summer and last, however, the cutting machines are silent because the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) has taken an excellent, science-led policy decision: to protect these birds by extending the farmland hedge-cutting ban by a month, to 31 August.

This ban is not responsible for the overgrown lanes vexing rural holidaymakers, because roadside hedges can still be cut for safety reasons (blame austerity for wild roadsides), but it is vexing many farmers. August is a convenient time for hedge-cutting because the ground is dry and the work doesn’t obstruct more important tasks, such as sowing crops.

The science, however, is unequivocal: more than 40,000 nesting records collected by volunteers for the British Trust for Ornithology prove that finches and buntings nest through August. Ground-nesting skylarks and corn buntings are also destroyed by hedge-cutters driving along field margins.

As farmers press to repeal the ban, the wildlife campaigner Mark Avery says its survival will be a test of both the new Defra secretary, Andrea Leadsom, and whether we are in danger of slipping into a post-science era of countryside management.

I hope this wild-hedged August will show farmers that they can save money by cutting back on contractors and help birds, insects and mammals. We need to escape the tyranny of the tidy hedge.

Lynx effect

I expected the story of the lynx fleeing Dartmoor zoo to run and run, but it’s ended with Flaviu being trapped on Dartmoor and “grumpily” returned to captivity.

It’s not a romantic climax, but not tragic either. Benjamin Mee, the zoo’s owner, is right when he says the lynx would’ve been shot had it remained in the wild. For anti-rewilders, Flaviu’s killing of four lambs during her short freedom is a valuable propaganda victory. However, it’s not so simple because captive-bred Flaviu has not learned to kill wild food, and so does not represent wild lynx behaviour.

If lynx are brought back, they will mostly trouble Britain’s burgeoning deer population. Nevertheless, the grudging acquiescence of local farmers must be won – via compensation, perhaps – if the recently proposed Kielder Forest reintroduction is to be a success.

Avalanches in slow motion

I can still picture the horror on Robbie Chater’s face when I asked him whether the Avalanches were working on a follow-up to their amazing debut album, Since I Left You. His reply went something like: we’ve just spent four years making this, please don’t make me think about the next one. I don’t have it verbatim because it’s on a lost cassette tape dating from 2001. During that Guardian interview on Melbourne’s sunny Fitzroy Street neither of us imagined their second record would take another 15 years. The backstory to the Avalanches’ new album, Wildflower, is spectacular – and so is its warm, beautiful and complex music. Whether it’s accidental, perfectionism or an act of defiance, their slowness sets a superb example.
656  Economy / Games and rounds / Re: Heads or Tails on: August 25, 2016, 07:33:12 AM
Soil PH:

In this article we talk about soil pH, what is and how to modify its value.


In fact, one of the most important parameters to calculate before growing a specific plant in a specific soil is the PH value, i.e. the measurement of the acidity or alkalinity of the soil, which is defined as the negative logarithm ( base 10 ) of the activity of hydronium ions ( H+ or, more precisely, H3O+aq ) in a solution. In fact, depending on their peculiarities, different plants need different pHs.


Soil pH strongly influences microbiological activity, mineral elements availability and, ultimately, the adaptability of the different plant species. The most of bacteria – from which nitrogen fixation, nitrification, some organic matter decomposition process depend – prefer a sub-acid or slightly alkaline environment ( pH 6.8÷7.2 ); the deviation from such conditions negatively affect both nutritive elements availability and humidification process. Mushrooms prefer an acid environment and with such conditions they ensure the demolition of organic compounds. Actinomycetes develop mainly in slightly alkaline dry, loose ( and thus rich in oxygen ) soils ( pH 7÷7.5 ), because – with such conditions – they are able to compensate for the lack of activity of mushrooms and other bacteria, in drought periods.


Soil pH influences the solubility of various mineral elements causing their accumulation in forms more or less available for plants, as well as their leaching to deeper layers. Thus, knowing pH value gives useful indications about mineral elements availability in the soil, deriving both from origin minerals decomposition and any spread fertilizers. The most known and important case for soil fertility is the one of phosphorus; in the soil it can be found in the form of poorly soluble phosphates. Their solubility depends on pH: if the reaction is acid it means there are iron and aluminum phosphates, the availability of which increases as pH increases; instead if the reaction is alkaline there are calcium phosphates, the availability of which decreases as pH increases. The result is a higher solubility of phosphates ( and thus of phosphorus ) for pH values near neutrality.


The most of horticultural crops can easily grow with a sub-acid pH ( between 6 and 6.7 ) or with a neutral one. Yet there exist garden plants and some vegetables too with different needs; for this reason it could be better to “modify” soil pH in order to adapt it to the kind of crop, especially if we talk about pot crops.
Soils which have a pH between 6.8 and 7.2 is considered neutral and is the best soil for the most of horticultural crops. In fact many microelements can be absorbed optimally in this type of soil, while this does not happen in strongly acid or strongly alkaline ones, except for few microelements.


Soils which have an acid pH – between 5.4 and 5.9 – are generally not very fertile; such conditions usually also inhibit bacterial and fungal activity, which are fundamental to decompose organic substances. Moreover, elements like calcium or magnesium are insoluble and thus unusable by plants. Other elements scarcely present in an acid soil are boron and phosphorus. Instead, elements highly available and soluble are aluminum, iron and manganese which, if present in too large quantity, could lead to nutritional imbalances and plants problems.
Instead, a soil with an alkaline pH – between 8.2 and 8.8 – is usually rich in limestone; generally such soils are clayey. In alkaline soils insoluble elements ( the ones not available for plants ) are iron, sulfur and potassium. Limestone, similarly to what happens in acid soils, slows microbial and microorganisms activity, which help to decompose organic matter.


In the case of an excessive soil acidity, we can try to remedy correcting it administering some substances with an alkaline pH, like – for example – limestone rocks, calcium carbonate and marl.
The correction with addition of quicklime could be of particular interest. To do it, we need to spread in our vegetable garden small heaps of this substance and then let them fade a little bit. Afterwards we need to uniformly spread this substance on the soil and then bury it.
Besides positively modify pH in too acid soils, lime also brings other benefits.
In fact, it stimulates organic matter mobilization helping to speed up mineralization process with a resulting increase of productions. Yet, on the other hand, it quickens the depletion of soil’s organic reserves.


Instead if we need to reduce the pH in a too alkaline soil, we can try to remedy administering both organic substances and gypsum. Among the organic substances, manure can be successfully used to this purpose, thanks to its slightly acid pH, as well as other benefits that usually brings to soils. Correcting alkaline soils through gypsum, namely calcium sulphate, is often suggested because this substance – if added in a solution – brings sulfuric acid ions . We need to keep in mind that – due to its calcium content – gypsum shows effects similar to lime on soils, namely it quickens organic matter mineralization, increasing productions, but also quickening the depletion of organic reserves.


For Cactaceae family it is usually suggested a soil with a pH near 6.5; to reduce pH in a quick and DIY way we can prepare a solution with water and cooking vinegar, using a teaspoon vinegar for 1 liter of water. In alternative we can use: lemon or orange juice, beer, wine, conifers parts ( needles or twigs ) or tomatoes. All of these things have an acid pH, so they can be successfully used for this purpose, as well as coffee grounds, which can be left to dry and then directly mixed to the compound.

657  Economy / Gambling / Re: monthly best gambling site!!! (august edition) on: August 25, 2016, 07:26:38 AM
Directbet is the best one!
658  Economy / Games and rounds / Re: DirectBet Soccer Prediction Game *** Win Free Bets ! *** Free to Enter ! on: August 24, 2016, 06:32:11 AM
HT: Manchester City 0 - 0 Steaua Bucharest
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659  Economy / Gambling discussion / Re: 2016/17 NBA Off-Season on: August 23, 2016, 01:07:16 PM
GSW is the obvious choise, although I think a good surprise could come from Portland.
660  Economy / Gambling discussion / Re: La Liga (Spanish League) Prediction Thread 2016/17 on: August 23, 2016, 01:05:08 PM
I voted for Real Madrid.
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