1. In high probability, Satoshi's bitcoin stash is the greatest. He was the first to generate coins, and continued mining throughout 2009. He has mined 980,000 coins that have never been spent, using a distinguishable pattern and a unique version of the miner software. Whether he has mined other coins with standard miner(s), and/or bought or sold them, is very hard to find out, because we don't even know who Satoshi is. The upper limit of Satoshi's fortune can be estimated to 1.5 million, although the more likely case is close to 1 million.
2. It is becoming accepted knowledge that the owner of Silk Road, "Dread Pirate Roberts a.k.a. DPR", is a San Fransisco man named Ross Ulbricht whom the FBI nabbed in October, 2013, suspected of federal crimes. Silk Road was a successful online marketplace which had generated BTC
615,000 in commissions during the time of operation. There is no evidence that DPR had spent many of the coins before getting caught. SR operating costs were similarly low. The FBI has cracked open a wallet containing BTC
144,000, but it is likely that DPR still controls a sizable stash of coins, although it is also possible that they are spent or given away. We do well to suspect everyone who claims to know the whole truth concerning this case.
4. According to knightmb, the holding is completely dissipated voluntarily. There is a thread discussing this
, and the claim is not generally held to be credible. More research is needed.
5. Analysis on MtGox' monthly profit and loss is needed to better assess the stash Karpeles controls.
6. Not owned
by FBI, but this is the balance of two addresses in FBI's control. The coins are confiscated from Silk Road and its merchants. If they owners of the coins are found guilty of felonies, the coins revert to the federal government and will be auctioned for fiat money.
8. The Winklevoss' came public in [when] telling that they plan to launch a Bitcoin ETF and have accumulated 1% of all (outstanding?) bitcoins.
11. Provably owns a single address with a balance of BTC
40,000. Total holdings may reach up to BTC
12. Estimate based on his winning BTC
11,000 in Just Dice, and having BTC
15,000 invested in the "house bankroll" of Just Dice and Lets Dice. If his claim that he owns an ASIC manufacturer is true, the total stash may be larger than estimated.
13. Lost BTC
15,000 in early 2013 with his business mpex.co without going broke. Has made thousands before and after that according to published records. Except from illiquid positions in bitcoin companies, holds all his wealth in bitcoins.
14. Long-time forum VIP member, not disclosed his bitcoin holdings but estimate is based on several anecdotal evidence such as 400,000 LTC holding which is secondary to BTC
holding, and BTC
5,000 bet with Matthew that the latter defaulted.
15. Claimed in October 2013 to have 5 million dollars worth of bitcoins.
17. Claimed to have a million dollar worth of bitcoins at the time when it would have amounted approximately this many.
51. Cypherdoc exchanged his lifetime savings of gold and silver for bitcoins starting in April 2011. Total holding estimated based on his likely lifetime savings, likely average conversion price, and stories how difficult it was to sell or even transport such an amount of silver.
52. A middle point between rpietila's claim that he has "never after 1.1.2012 been in control of any less than BTC
2,400 or any more than BTC
35,000. Number includes family and corporate holdings.
102. Koch became famous in Oct 2013 when he bought a house for 1/5 of the $24 investment he had made in bitcoins in 2009. It is generally assumed that he still holds the balance of BTC
4,000 since the recent article
does not mention further sales.
202. Wikileaks' public balance is more than BTC
1,000, but it is likely that large donations have always been made with unique receiver addresses. The estimate may well be conservative.