In the case of a bank run, bank executives should be held personally liable for funds owed to account holders who are unable to receive them. This debt should be non-dischargable in any bankruptcy.
Depending on how the contract is constructed, it is possible to avoid any liability."This FRB note can be redeemed for 20 ounces of gold, pending availability*."*Our bank only holds %10 of all outdtanding notes as reserve in gold at any moment.
There is nothing wrong with a person lending money to the bank and owning debt, or depositing money in a bank account and owning money that can be withdrawn on demand. But it needs to be clear which the bank customer owns: money or debt, as they are very different things.