Even if such an advantage is discovered, the first to market advantage is huge.
Except when being well established becomes a liability. It's already difficult or virtually impossible to make large changes to Bitcoin to introduce new functionality because it would jeopardize the existing functionality which is now worth a lot of money.
A newcomer with better features which learned the lessons from bitcoin's problems would have a chance.
Facebook was a late arrival to the social network software after Friendster and Myspace.