Scenario: The state has been holding outright war against Bitcoin nodes and has split the infrastructure in several places
Meaning shut down the internet? or simply added enough hashing power to dominate the block-chain?
In case 1, it only takes a couple tor tunnels to stitch the whole thing back together.
In case 2 the Gov nodes are ignored as soon as they break the protocol rules and cause a fork, or their work is accepted as the longest block-chain if it is valid.
separating the Bitcoin network into two pieces, possibly more.
Each piece will attempt to talk to the others, none of the valid nodes will have an invalid block-chain, and the longest chain will win, and then all the transactions not in that chain will be added in subsequent blocks.
What are the implications?
Without physically partitioning ALL data networks at the same division points, splitting at the network level will not work. If this happens bitcoin is the least of our worries.
splitting the block-chain without changing the rules will result in a quick merge, with the slight possibility of a double spend of the gov's own money, but they have to have 50% hash power to pull that trick off.