Is there a reputation management system in use today? I'm eager to start getting my rep up and make a name for myself, but I don't really... see a way to do so? I assume I'm just missing something...
The Bitcoin-OTC system has a huge and complicated reputation system:http://bitcoin-otc.com/trust.php
The Bitcoin OTC trading network is done almost exclusively in IRC chat.
To setup your OTC Web of Trust name you will have to register your name with a GPG public/private key pair. It can get pretty complicated, but it is also very robust and secure.
If you are not too technically savvy, there is a wiki and Youtube video tutorials to help get you setup.
After you have your name in the system, make a few trades and ask your counter-party to rate you. Once you build up your rep, you can pretty much use the OTC Web of Trust as a basis of your rep.