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Author Topic: Introduction to modern cryptography.  (Read 6466 times)
subvolatil
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June 29, 2013, 11:24:39 AM
Last edit: August 19, 2013, 10:06:53 PM by subvolatil
Merited by xtraelv (1)
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Introduction to Modern Cryptography.

Hi,  so i  decided  that,  as i have the  entire  week to my self i will  put in an  introduction to Cryptography,  for  all who  are interested in the  subject.  I will  be updating  the  post,   for the next  week, with  new  information and  sections on cryptography.

Ok, before  we move into  the  real interesting  subjects of  cryptography  like, key exchange  protocols, signatures, certificates, Symmetrical  cryptography and Asymmetrical  cryptography, hash fictions, and prime  numbers. We will first  look into the history of  cryptography and its origins,

History of the Hidden  Language.

During  ancient  times, when  leaders  and  generals  needed to  send  messages to  their   troops, with instructions on what they  should  do. It  was very  easy for  the  enemy  to intercept  those  messages , by  ambushing  supply  routs (in modern time  its equivalent is the man in the middle  attack), So this  meant  the  message was  easily read and  the enemy  would  know   what  the  other  side  was  planning.  to  prevent  this  from  happening there was only  two ways  of  preventing this  from  happening, First, was to  hide the  message  so that it  looks just like  a normal  every  day  thing (Steganography). Steganography the art of  hiding messages so that it is only known to the  person  receiving the  message that a  message is hidden in it, a good  example is  invisible  ink.  Now, the Second way was  to  make  the  message  unreadable  for  any person,  who  was not  the intended recipient.  And this is  what  many did, because  unlike  stenography encryption could  be  taught  to  people easily and  could  be  done  with  much  less resources. so In a war situation  teaching   generals  and messengers  how to   implement cryptography  was  much  more  efficient.  

Early encryption  techniques   were rather  simple and  you  yourself  may have  played  with  it  when  you  were  kids.

Two  main  cipher  system  used were.
Transposition cipher
Substitution ciphers



A Transposition cipher uses a  very  simple  method of  encryption one  of the most  popular ones  were the   scytale, basically the  scytale is  a  piece  of  wood, on  which a  strip of  paper is wounded up to  revel what the message is. So the  person  sending  the message  to some  one  would  have  an  identical scytale as the other and  would  wind the  paper on it  and  write  the message then,  unwind   the  paper  and  fill the  empty space with  random  words.  if another person intercepted   the  message and  used a  different  size  scytale the message  would not show.
Problem  with this  was  the  sender and the  receiver  required identical scytale.

A Scytale


A Substitution ciphers is another simple cipher that substituted the  actual  alphabets with  some other alphabets or  numbers. The Caesar Cipher is by far the most famous  of them all,  used a  simple  shift  technique  to  substitute the alphabets, Used  by  Caesar himself and the roman  empire Eg bellow.

Three shift right  
Plain:     A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Cipher:   X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W

Planetext -  Bitcoin is a crypto coin
Ciphertext-  Efqzlfk fp x fovmql flfk
Notice  there is repetition of the  same alphabets that have been  substituted .


So, looking at the  cipher  above  you can  now   encrypt  any length  of  message through  substitution, and all the  receiver  has to  know  when  receiving the  message is  how many  shifts  are used.

However  all these  methods are  venerable to  cryptanalysis techniques, like a  frequency  analysis. All a person has  to  do  is  count  the  alphabets and make  a  note  of  each  of the  alphabets and the  number  of  times  it appears. In the  english  language some  alphabets  appear more  that some, using  this, we  can determine which symbol or  alphabet was  replaced .

Frequency graph



 Polyalphabetic cipher
Due  to the  ease  of  all these Cipher  being broken a new  system  was  requires, one  which could  not be  so easily  broken  using a  frequency analysis. many  new  ciphers  came in and out. One  being  predominantly used for  hundreds of years was the Polyalphabetic cipher on which  normal  frequency analysis  attack method  did not  work. and  it  used a  key. The Vigenère cipher the  best known of them  all and its harder  cousin Autokey cipher remained  one  of the most  used  ciphers  during the  15th and the  16th and up to mid  18th century, remained  unbroken.

It  was  a  variant of a Substitution ciphers but  with multiple shifts and  alphabets and  also  the use of a  key made  it  versatile and  impenetrable.

This is  how a  Vigenère cipher looks like.



Eg:-
Message - TO BE OR NOT TO BE THAT IS THE QUESTION
KEY -   RELATIONS

Keyword:       RELAT IONSR  ELATI   ONSRE  LATIO  NSREL
 Plaintext:     TOBEO RNOTT OBETH  ATIST  HEQUE STION
Ciphertext:    KSMEH ZBBLK SMEMP OGAJX SEJCS FLZSY

Notice  there is no  repetition of the  same alphabets that have been  substituted .

This kind of  ciphers remained  active  for many hundreds of years and was used widely in Europe and  the middle east. However the  fate of this cipher  system  was doomed, when a brilliant man who we all know and admire in the computing  world came along, the father  of  computer Charles Babbage, he  broke  both the   Vigenère cipher and the much harder Autokey cipher.

Tomorrow  we  will touch upon  mechanical ciphers, used in the  second  world  war and then,  enter the  world  of  modern cryptography in the  digital  age.  
  
_______________________________________________________________________________ ________________


Section 2
The Rise of the Machine



The  era of the  Second  world war, was the proving  grounds for modern encryption methods, ideas and innovation. In my opinion, if it was not  for the  Mathematicians, code-breakers and  revolutionary thinkers, the modern  computer age, the internet and space travel would not have been possible at all. The birth of computing  devices, to  conduct  tasks through programmed inputs were all tested and innovated, by codebreakers trying to break the  German Enigma code. The use of  early computers  was at England, in a place called Bletchley park.   In fact, the first discovery of modern public key encryption system and early experiments  on  One Time Pads was done during this  time.


Enigma Machine *Germany*(Left)                              SIGABA *USA* (Middle)                               TypeX *UK*(Right)


During the War the Germans used one of the most  successful, mechanical  crypto systems  called the Enegma machine, it was a rotor cipher machine, similar to a Polyalphabetic cipher but with  the difficulty increased by the rotor, if the allies broke the code, all the germans did was change the configuration and may be add rotors giving another  huge  headache for  code-breakers.    

The US and the UK  also used similar machine called the  SIGABA and the  TypeX. However, a code  system that was never  broken  by the enemy was not mechanical at all, but  were the Navajo code talkers who played a vital role in the  success in the pacific war theater .  There's even a  movie called the Windtalkers played by Nicolas Cage although it concentrated more on the nipless cage than the  Code talker.


Modern Cryptography
With progress happening  in the Cryptography community, one of them was by  far the most revolutionary, the public key crypto system, the RSA algorithm allowed people to have two keys, one public and one private. this solved  many problems of  key transfer, security and  validity of a encrypted message.  This algorithm was made during the second world war, but was classified. Until 1977 when a group in MIT rediscovered this algorithm on their own, hence the name RSA algorithm, the first alphabet of their  surname Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman.  

The advent of modern cryptography gave rise to secure communication, safe banking transaction, and greater communication, and social revolution. We use some form of encryption every day and sometimes we don’t even know that encryption is being used.

Cryptography, before the dawn of the Information age was confined to the intelligence community, with many of the technology kept classified and inaccessible to the general public. It was nearly impossible for a person without a connection to the intelligence community, or a large corporation like IBM to do any work on Cryptography. But, that all changed when the internet was born. People from around the world collaborated to bring cryptography to the masses. With the advent of the internet people were able to disseminate information about cryptography, and develop software for everyone to use.

This shift in knowledge from an intelligence based community to a worldwide public community, gave rise to many social changes. With people openly advocating the use of encryption to promote privacy, Bring down corrupt government, safeguard whistleblowers. During the late 80's many BBS's hosted score of text files relating to cryptography and around the early 90's a cypher punk mailing list was started, the birthplace of the cyberpunks, with the major discussion on technical issues, alternative uses of cryptography  privacy, government surveillance, freedom of speech, civil society, and related issues. There have been many influential individual who have shaped this movement Eric Hughes, Jim Bell, Philip Zimmermann, Julian Assange just to name a few.  
    
The roots of bitcoin can be traced back to the early discussion, within the cyberpunks and the cryptoanarchistic groups for an anonymous banking system. May be Satoshi Nakamoto might be one of the early cypherpunks, who was able to solve the problem of anonymous banking. But, we shall never know.

Cryptography has now become an integral part of our lives, in this  modern day society it is rare not to come across technology that does not utilize some sort of  encryption. I believe that the future for Cryptography is bright, because this is the only thing that can solve many of the  world problems of secure communication, Tyrannical governments, greedy Banks, and immoral super corporations. What the future holds for cryptography is can only be speculated, with quantum computers in the forefront of computing technology, it might as well be foretold that computers are gona be far more smaller, powerful, and consuming less power.

Just imagine the next Bitcion Hashing arms race with people using Q-chips. instead of the outdated ASIC's, the Q-chips able to do 1,000 times more processing than the ASIC's. A hundred time less power. But, Q-chips are still a few years away so ASICS are still gona be active . Ok now i'm moving away from topic, so let me stop my self there.  

Tomorrow we shall finally talk about the technical part of modern Cryptography. Thinking about what to talk about tomorrow . I am a  bit torn about where to start this from, and after a cigarette break I have decided to start with the basis of modern cryptography, the math’s  behind it, so the topic for tomorrow would be Prime number related math’s, and will touch upon a Diffie and Hellman key exchange protocol .


_______________________________________________________________________________ ________________


Section 3
The Numbers  Game

The  building blocks of every  thing  in maths my opinion is  and always,  the prime  number. This  number  can form  so many  different  numbers  of   any length, and a number  of a  particulate  digit  can  be  factorized  to a  smallest  number   being prime.

What is a  prime  number?
A prime  number is  a number  divisible  by it self  and  one.  (basic old  school definition)
take  it this  way, a number  which cannot  be  divided equally without  creating fractions  of  it.

 2 3 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 29 31 37 41 43 47 53 59 61 67 71...............

so, lets  take  for  example  an  integer which  Factorizes to
 56984  = 2 × 2 × 2 × 17 × 419

what is  prime factorization?
 Prime factors of a positive integer are the prime numbers that divide that integer exactly like the  example  above.

so why is this  useful to cryptography and  online  security?
Well the  simple  fact  is that, it  is  easy to  multiply two large prime numbers, but while trying to  find the  prime  factor  of that  integer become  a tedious task taking  alot of  time
a  simple example like.

7703 × 6421 = 49460963

the  output a  compost  number is  going  to take  a  long  time  to be  factored, the  example above may not  be the  best  example  of a large  prime  number  being  used but  just  Imagine a prime  number P1 and P2 both  the length of  about 100 digits  long or much longer  and multiply those  tow  together the  composite  number would  be  hard to factorize the limit  being the time  taken to  compute the result.


g mod p

42 mod 12 = 10


Working with prime modulus.

3^29 mod  17  = 12

so here calculating this makes it  easy when we have the  generator as 3 raised to the power 29 . However when we  have the result  as 12 and need to  find 3 raised to the  power x . this  becomes a  time  consuming  task.

3^x mod  17  = 12
This problem is also know  as a  discrete logarithm problem. Therefor  this  creates a  One way  function. easy to  compute  harder to decipher.


Therefore, if the size of the  prime  increases the time  taken for a  computer  to compute the  result of that, would  take  a  very  long  time.  

Clock arithmetic :

If we  consider prime  numbers  as the  ingredients in our  encryption recipe, the modular arithmetic is utensil for  cooking it  up.   we shall see a simple  use  of [ mod ] in a  few  examples  while  talking about  the  Key exchange  protocol especially the Diffie and Hellman key exchange protocol.



Diffie and Hellman key exchange protocol

Problem of Exchanging  Keys :-

Lets  take  an example of  two people  who are honest employees in a corrupt government service, Alice and Bob,  and lets  take  for  example their Evil boss is Eve.


Alice and Bob want to communicate  with  each  other but, does not  want  any one  to read their messages, as they know  Eve would  most  likely be reading their  emails.  
so how would the  two  communicate without Eve being  able to read their messages.

Firstly, Alice and Bob has  to agree on a  secret key so that they can  use that key to  encrypt messages and send  to each other.  
but, the problem is that if they send  the  key without encrypting it , Eve would  know  what the  key is and can  read all the  messages Alice and bob send  each other.
This is where the Diffie and Hellman key exchange protocol would be most  usefull.

So how  does  it  work?                                                                    Eve  ('g' & 'p')
                                                                                                       ↑
Alice and Bob agree on a generator and a prime modulus.                Alice ← 'g' & 'p' → Bob  

g = 3
p = 17


What Alice does :-
She chose a  random number                    Alice  (x) 'Private number'
x=54

and then raises that on the generator, result q = 15

g^x mod p = q                                                                         Eve  ('g','p' & 'q')
3^54 mod 17 = 15                                                                                ↑
                                                                                                 Alice 'q'  → Bob  
Alice, then  sends this result 15 over the insecure line to Bob

What Bob does  
He chose a  random number                Bob   (y) 'Private number'
y= 24

and then raises that on the generator, result  r = 16              
            
g^y mod p = r                                                                             Eve  ('g','p','q' & 'r')
3^24 mod 17 = 16                                                                                   ↑
                                                                                                   Bob 'r'  →  Alice
Bob, then  sends this result 16 over the insecure line to Alice

What Alice does is,
uses Bob's result as a generator raised to the power of the random number  Alice chose to calculate a secret key s
r^x mod p = s

16^54 mod 17 = 1

Bob also does the same thing using the number Alice sent Bob. to generate a secret key s
q^y mod = p = s

15^24 mod 17 = 1


Here Both Bob and Alice was able to compute the secret key s without transmitting the key over the insure line.

Meanwhile, Eve who is reading the messages coming in, can only intercept the following details from Bob and Alice
the generator 'g', prime modulus 'p' and the two results of the calculation by Alice and Bob 'q' and 'r'.

What Eve is missing is the private numbers that Alice and Bob used to generate the Secret 's' . without the 'x' and 'y', it is impossible for  Eve to determine  what secret key Alice and Bob is using to  encrypt their  messages.
 


Alice '(m)' →    Bob
s(m)                s(m)
So, here Alice sends Bob an encrypted message using a secret key 's', which Bob then uses the Secret key 's' to decrypt the message Alice Sent him.


As you can  see with this protocol many of the problems of secret key transfer  is solved. This also leads us to the path of asymmetrical encryption and the use of the later RSA algorithm's public key cryptosystem to encrypt messages.

 I hope this was simple to understand, i tried to put in as much details without making it confusing, i hope you all like it and understand. Next, i will cover the public key cryptosystem namely the RSA algorithm, and then touch upon Hashing, one time pads and a few single key encryption on block ciphers.  



_______________________________________________________________________________ ________________

Section 4
Asymmetrical Cryptosystem

The  problem  faced  with  cryptography is  that  when  two  parties  area   involved  a predetermined key is  required. This  creates  a  problem  of  compromising  the  key. the other  problem  is that, if the  two  people  are  not able to meet and  set  a   key  they  would   obviously  need  to  communicate  the  key  agreement using   the   Diffie and Hellman key exchange protocol. Communication  between  the  two   people  may  not  be a   viable  option,  and   even  dangerous.  In this  case  the  most  easiest  Crypto system   would  be  the  use  of a  double key  encryption/ public Key Cryptography.

A  public  Key cryptography can  serve two   different  purpose  First  and the foremost is  encrypting  messages. Secondly, for signing messages  and  providing authenticity.

A public key cryptosystem is  built  in two  parts the first  part  the  private  key or  the  secret  key, second  is  the   public key, by it name  you know that it  is  to be  public  and  can  be  openly  distributed  to  any on  or even  published  in  public. But, not the  private  key, the private key  stays  with the  user  and   should  be  kept  as safe and  not  shown  to  any one.  

The  principles  of  Public  key  cryptography plays  a  pivotal role in the Bitcoin ecosystem. The Bitcoin address that is  generated,  is  part of  a  public  key. the public  address you  see  of a Bitcoin is  a hashed  key of  a ECC(Elliptic Curve Cryptography) pair.  Infact  it  uses  a ECDSA (Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm) public/private key pair, then it  is  processed  through a  SHA-256 hash till a  base 58 format is  created  which is  the Bitcoin public  address.

For  now  we  shall study  the  use  of   the  RSA algorithm, rather  than the  ECC(i'm a  bit  rusty  with the  ECC  Tongue)


Alright,  Let  us  take  Alice  and Bob,  two  lovers  we  are  desperately wanting  to  communicate  with  each  other, but  they are  kept  apart for  each other  by  their  family, who are rivals in the  spice  trade. Both the  families  are  able  to intercept  any  communications  between  Alice  and  Bob.  and  Eve  is  the  one reading  all the  messages.  


OK, Alice  and  Bob now  creates  a  public  key  pair on  their  own.


Alice  and  Bob chose  two separate prime  numbers p1,p2.

The they Take p1,p2 and multily  to  get  n.
                  
                     p1*p2 = n

      
Alice  Bob
p1     53    61
p2     59    53
n     3127  3233

Now both of  them  chose 'e' such that  1 < e < φ(n)
where in φ(n) is,  φ(n) = φ(p)φ(q) = (p − 1)(q − 1), a  Euler's function
being φ phi .

Public Key
    
   Alice     Bob
e       3      17

 
Now, e is   what  is  assigned  as public  key.  so For  Alice the public  key is  = 3 and  Bob is = 17

We  not   go  and  calculate  the  private  key 'd' for  both Alice  and  Bob.
being,

    d = (K*φ(n)+1)/(e)
d is the multiplicative inverse of e (modulo φ(n))

So  after  computing  d  we  get :

Private Key
 
Alice    Bob
d   2011   2753


So  now   both  Alice  and  Bob  has their  public and  private  key .
 
       Alice      Bob
Private Key   d       2011      2753
Public Key   e       3      17


Alice Publishes the Public  key and  'n' on  the  news paper public key = 3, n= 3127 (or  may be  some  thing more  discreet like " My favorite number  is  3"  )
Bob Publishes the Public  key and  'n' on  the  news paper public key = 17, n= 3233(or  may be  some  thing more  discreet like " My favorite number  is  17"  )
Eve can  see  both the  key's.

Encryption : - Bob sends a love  letter  to Alice.
c = m^e (mod n) (using  the public key of alice)

So  lets take  for  example  the  message 'm'  is  89

89^3 (mod 3127) = 1394

therefore c= 1394,  this  becomes  the  encrypted  message
 
                        Eve
                            |
Bob --> --c 1394--->^----->Alice

Eve has  the  message  now  but  cant  understand  any  thing  she  would  need Alice's Private  key  in order  to  know  the  content of the  message.
Meanwhile, In  the  safety of her  room Alice get  the  encrypted message, she  goes  over  to  her  safe  and   gets  her  private  key  to  decrypt  the message.

Decryption  becomes  fairly  simple  when  the  private key is known .

m=c^d(mod n)
there for  the message 'm' is
1394^2011 (mod 3127)  = 89


Here  the  prime factorization of 'n' becomes  crucial, if the  prime numbers   used  are  of  a long  length the  time  factor  for  calculating  the   prime  factor  become  impossibly  long and  tedious.  so  the  main  protection  in  a  public  key  cryptosystem  is  the   calculation  time   required  to  find the  prime  factor. longer the  prime  numbers  used  longer  for the  computers  to  compute  the  prime  factor.  


Now,   we  shall  look  into  digital signature.
A  digital  signature  is a  way  of   proving  a  persons  authenticity,

What  a  person  does  is  takes   his  private  key  encrypts  a  message and  sends  it  to  another  person  .  

So  for eg. Alice  wants  to  send  a legal document  to  Bob,  but  Bob is  scared  that  some one  may  intercept the  message and  send  a  false  document  to  him . so  for   Bob to know   if  the  message  is  from  Alice  it  needs to  have  some  type  of  verification.

So  Alice  takes a  document  and   encrypts  it  using  her  Private Key  and  sends it  to  Bob.

Bob  then  uses Alice's public  key  and  decrypts  it, if it decrypts  then the  document  is from  Alice  if  it  does not  then  the  message  may be  compromised  and  not  verified.  

Here  the  process is in reverse. it  is only  used  to  provide  identity of the  sender.  the  message can  be  digitally  signed  using the  senders private key and   encrypted  using  the  recipient's public  key.


Ok that  covers  most  of  public  key  encryption  and  signature  using  RSA,  i  will be  following up  on  later  editions,  do  suggest   what  you would  like  to  see  and   do ask  me any  questions,   i  will answer.      
 








  
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Benson Samuel
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June 29, 2013, 02:15:22 PM
 #2

Good read. Could use a summary for sure.

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June 29, 2013, 04:25:45 PM
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Good read. Looking forward to reading more :-)

Cheers

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June 30, 2013, 12:55:20 PM
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Thank you for your  continuing interest in  cryptography,  I have updated section 2 .
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June 30, 2013, 01:45:28 PM
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Can I publish it on my blog? I'll give you credits.
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June 30, 2013, 02:33:48 PM
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Thank you for your  continuing interest in  cryptography,  I have updated section 2 .

Sub, can you also add some text on modern methods, ie, Caeser, MD5, Sha, etc?
How are they different? And what are their individual functions.

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June 30, 2013, 02:49:53 PM
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Can I publish it on my blog? I'll give you credits.

sure !  more  the people read better for society .
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June 30, 2013, 02:51:59 PM
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Thank you for your  continuing interest in  cryptography,  I have updated section 2 .

Sub, can you also add some text on modern methods, ie, Caeser, MD5, Sha, etc?
How are they different? And what are their individual functions.

Yup , i will be  covering those hashing algorithm, and OTP's later this week. tomorrow i will cover basics on public key cryptography, and basic maths involved in it.  

Edit : - i think i will put in some hyper link on the  Post make it easier to  read more on particular subject.  will do it later tonight .
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June 30, 2013, 04:05:46 PM
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Can I publish it on my blog? I'll give you credits.

sure !  more  the people read better for society .

Thanks a lot for giving me permission.
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June 30, 2013, 07:17:18 PM
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Can I publish it on my blog? I'll give you credits.

sure !  more  the people read better for society .

Thanks a lot for giving me permission.

Whats the link to your Blog areebmajeed?

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July 01, 2013, 04:35:11 AM
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http://htpub.blogspot.com/2013/06/introduction-to-modern-cryptography.html
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July 02, 2013, 09:25:42 AM
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Section 3 updated. hope i did not make it too confusing , i have a habit of rambling on and on.
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July 02, 2013, 10:05:09 AM
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This is great.  Will be posting on blog as well and crediting you for it...hope that's ok.
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July 02, 2013, 10:07:54 AM
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I think this post deserves a place in main India forum, as all the content is directly related to Bitcoin and CryptoGraphy Smiley

What you say Benson ?

Cheers

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July 02, 2013, 10:27:21 AM
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This is great.  Will be posting on blog as well and crediting you for it...hope that's ok.

Sure !! i am anti-copy right's , the more you share copy and send the better  for every one.

I think this post deserves a place in main India forum, as all the content is directly related to Bitcoin and CryptoGraphy Smiley

What you say Benson ?

Cheers


Up to Benson, i dont mind any thing .
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July 02, 2013, 07:58:25 PM
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This is great.  Will be posting on blog as well and crediting you for it...hope that's ok.

Sure !! i am anti-copy right's , the more you share copy and send the better  for every one.

I think this post deserves a place in main India forum, as all the content is directly related to Bitcoin and CryptoGraphy Smiley

What you say Benson ?

Cheers


Up to Benson, i dont mind any thing .

Done.

PM me Sub, there are some things that you can do to make this information more effective.

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August 06, 2013, 09:44:53 PM
 #17

Looks like  this  thread  is  gathering dust.  sorry  i've  not  been active  for   quite  some  time.  I  had  a break-in at my home  a  few  weeks  ago and  all of my server, network equipment, desktop and  laptops  were  stolen  including my  brand  new  TV(40').   So  i've  beein  in the  process of  moving  to a   safer  resident  and  better  security, will be  up  and   running  with  a  skeleton crew  in a  few  day  time  and  will make  sure  i will update  this  thread  regularly.

Silver lining  is  that  the  robbers  did not  bother  to  take my  printed   bitcoin  addresses, atleast it  helped  me   get  a  new  computer, and   moving   expense.  "Viva Las Bitcoin"
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August 07, 2013, 07:43:45 AM
 #18

Aah that sucks mate Sad

I wish you best luck in recovering from it asap.

Regards

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August 09, 2013, 04:13:57 AM
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Sorry to hear that.  Sad

Wish you the best of luck in finding a safer resident.  Same thing happened to a family friend of ours yesterday.  What's the world coming to?  Glad to hear that your bitcoin are untouched.

Recently put together this PDF on bitcoin, bitcoin mining and CoinMonk:
http://unoco.in/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/What-is-Bitcoin-CoinMonk1.pdf

Am planning to add your brilliant piece on cryptography to this document soon.
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August 19, 2013, 04:44:15 PM
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Sorry to hear that.  Sad

Wish you the best of luck in finding a safer resident.  Same thing happened to a family friend of ours yesterday.  What's the world coming to?  Glad to hear that your bitcoin are untouched.

Recently put together this PDF on bitcoin, bitcoin mining and CoinMonk:
http://unoco.in/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/What-is-Bitcoin-CoinMonk1.pdf

Am planning to add your brilliant piece on cryptography to this document soon.

Yeh  it  was  a bummer  what  happened.  The  money   on  bitcoin   saved me  a  lot  of  trouble. 

i read  you PDF a  very interesting  and  informative  read. 

Yes  i'm  now  planing  to  start  the   writeup , will work  on a   new  outline  today  and  will have a  draft  posted  tomorrow.  So  watch the  skies.

Aah that sucks mate Sad

I wish you best luck in recovering from it asap.

Regards

Thank  . i am  now  up on my  feet and  ready  for  the  second  round. :-) 
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