Bitcoin is a highly informative coin with all the math explained in detail. The formulas are all available online, there are even resources that calculate the s, r and z from any transaction, so anyone can verify that the math works.

s, r, z from transactions? I think you have misunderstood something.

Unfortunately, altcoins do not always provide such information.

A 'proper' altcoin should provide all 'these' information.

I was looking at zerocoin protocol and I was not able to find the link between the data in the transactions and the formula for the protocol, which is supposed to be c = g^{s} h^{r }(mod p) where c, g, h, p are supposed to be a part of the transaction. The github resources were also uninformative about how the signature contains these values, neither is google. How would one go about finding this connection? There are lots of coins using the protocol, but nobody explains how transaction decoding works.

Did you already try looking at

the zerocoin whitepaper (found via google..) ?