I think this is what's happening, but it's just a mildly educated guess at best, I'm much better with Wintel than *nix.
Maybe the problem is in the first pasted block of terminal output:
Couldn't configure usb_stream
: Invalid argument
means that you are somehow passing a bad commandline argument to the jack server and it fails to start, then in the second block of terminal output you have the client configured properly (hopefully) and running, but no server running to feed audio to it.
So, I would check the config file for the jack server, which I assume is "~/.asoundrc (in your home directory)" looking for a typo or other mistake near the "usb_stream" parameter(s). But then you're also getting socket errors, so it could be something else in that config file. I'll have another look at it tomorrow when I'm well-rested.
Apologies if you've already investigated and discounted this. Believe it or not, about a year ago I managed to get Ableton Live working through WINE with my crappy onboard sound at the time, with ASIO4All and MIDI working. Decent latencies too. But it was hellish to set up, both in its fiddliness and it's unfriendliness to noobs.
Let us know if this somehow manages to fix one thing and expose the next broken link in the chain.
Good luck fellow paint sniffer.