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Author Topic: [UPDATE: Chinese Translation Done] I need help tranlating Satoshi's design paper  (Read 2872 times)
jimbobway
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October 02, 2011, 10:36:33 PM
 #1

Hey guys,

The main reason why I got involved with bitcoin was because of Satoshi's PDF.  Can you help translate?  Thank you.

Please see the project thread here:  https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=46624.0

Or you can go directly to the translation tool here: http://crowdin.net/project/bitcoin/invite

UPDATE (10/2/2011):

Visit bitcoinblogger.com for the Chinese and Chinese Traditional translations.

Chinese: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=explorer&chrome=true&srcid=0B1UsG65HCLkuOGNkMDZmMzYtZTQ0OC00OGVmLTk2MGItODBkNjA0MDEwYjkw&hl=en
Chinese Traditional: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=explorer&chrome=true&srcid=0B1UsG65HCLkuMTc5NjFjMzUtZjQxMy00ZTAzLWJkNjYtMmZhNTcyMzhmY2M1&hl=en_US

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MattscheAN
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October 03, 2011, 06:38:35 AM
 #2

Is german allready in work?

Feel free to throw in my Hat: 14FYEGevqWatJqKrE6ATsDM7idteVes5bi- Birthday is 20.08!
jimbobway
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October 03, 2011, 07:01:52 AM
 #3

Is german allready in work?

Not yet, we need a german translation.  Just go here, register and start translating! :-)

http://crowdin.net/project/bitcoin/invite

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October 03, 2011, 03:00:20 PM
 #4

Thanks for those who volunteered so far.  Let's keep it going!

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MemoryDealers
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October 03, 2011, 03:41:40 PM
 #5

Bump for a great idea!
Please help out if you speak more than one language!


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October 03, 2011, 07:22:49 PM
 #6

The main reason why I got involved with bitcoin was because of Satoshi's PDF.  Can you help translate?

+1 for the first part.
-1 for the second part.

I got interested in undstanding Bitcoin by Satoshi's paper, i.e. I did not at all understand the true concept in Satoshi's paper but it served as a good cliff hanger and appetizer.

5 weeks later, having read Bitcoin source code and having hacked my way to my own block explorer tool, I had a better understanding of the way Bitcoin works. Thus, I do not understand why u suggest a translation of the paper; a reenginered, improved paper with more precision giving the complete picture would be much more important.

 
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October 04, 2011, 05:07:46 PM
 #7

So far here's is what we have translated:

Spanish: 31%
German: 16%
Romanian: 2%
Swedish: 1%

Come on guys!  Help me out! :-)

Sign up here:

http://crowdin.net/project/bitcoin/invite

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October 05, 2011, 06:10:41 AM
 #8

Looks like the Germans are winning the translation contest with 41% complete.  Thank you.  Grin

Here is a sneak peek of the German PDF:

Übersetzung ins Deutsche in progress. Siehe Bild unten. Ich bin Umwandlung in PDF.


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October 05, 2011, 07:09:35 AM
 #9

I'll see if i can give a hand with the Brazilian Portuguese.

edit: but please have more people review what i do, somtimes when i write, regardless of language, i let silly (and somtimes stupid) mistakes slip.

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October 05, 2011, 07:31:56 AM
 #10

Hm, the way the sentences are split between multiple lines there makes it kinda awkward to translate a few parts...

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October 05, 2011, 08:53:07 AM
 #11

Quote
Hm, the way the sentences are split between multiple lines there makes it kinda awkward to translate a few parts...

Yes, I've been working on the Spanish translation and sometimes you just need to rearrange the lines. For example, if a pair adjective-noun is split in two lines, I usually translate it as noun + adjective in the first line, so that the noun is then missing in the translation of the next line.

Anyway, I'm not sure I like this kind of collaborative platform for this sort of translation. When I was going to resume the translation today I found that somebody else has continued translating a few lines. While this could be good in terms of completing the translation quickly, it also means that there may be an inconsistency in style and even choices for the translation of technical terms in different parts of the document. I've decided to offer my own suggestions for some of those lines, but that means that there are now multiple suggestions for several lines. I'm not sure how a unified translation is eventually produced under this system. It seems a bit awkward and complicated to use.
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October 05, 2011, 09:41:55 AM
 #12

It would've been better if it was organized in terms of paragraphs and sentences instead of lines.

(I dont always get new reply notifications, pls send a pm when you think it has happened)

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October 05, 2011, 09:44:37 AM
 #13

...

Anyway, I'm not sure I like this kind of collaborative platform for this sort of translation. When I was going to resume the translation today I found that somebody else has continued translating a few lines. While this could be good in terms of completing the translation quickly, it also means that there may be an inconsistency in style and even choices for the translation of technical terms in different parts of the document. I've decided to offer my own suggestions for some of those lines, but that means that there are now multiple suggestions for several lines. I'm not sure how a unified translation is eventually produced under this system. It seems a bit awkward and complicated to use.
I would expect that once the translation itself is done, there would still be the need for revision in order to address such inconsistencies in writing style etc.

(I dont always get new reply notifications, pls send a pm when you think it has happened)

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October 05, 2011, 09:53:46 AM
 #14

Ill see what I can do for Dutch. But I suspect doing a proper translation is not so easy.

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October 05, 2011, 10:00:46 AM
 #15

I just started Dutch. Commiting a translation takes longer than typing it Sad

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October 05, 2011, 10:07:36 AM
 #16

The site slowed down a lot for me too a few minutes ago, seems to be working fast again now though.

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October 05, 2011, 10:24:04 AM
 #17

Awesome idea! I'm friends with a lot of native speakers of Asian languages. They are pretty lazy though Sad I'm still waiting for a couple dudes to translate the client to Arabic & Farsi

Also how come Irish is listed under Asia?

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October 05, 2011, 10:40:32 AM
 #18

I think the value in translating a technical paper is fairly limited, those who want technical details would typically have no problem (and possibly prefer) reading the English original. A better thing to have in multiple languages is a paper giving a thorough, reasoned discussion about all of Bitcoin's advantages (preferably tailored to what's relevant for each specific country).

Anyway, how well does the platform handle right-to-left languages? Can you generate a pdf sample for the work done so far in Hebrew?

1EofoZNBhWQ3kxfKnvWkhtMns4AivZArhr   |   Who am I?   |   bitcoin-otc WoT
Bitcoil - Exchange bitcoins for ILS (thread)   |   Israel Bitcoin community homepage (thread)
Analysis of Bitcoin Pooled Mining Reward Systems (thread, summary)  |   PureMining - Infinite-term, deterministic mining bond
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October 05, 2011, 04:37:43 PM
 #19

It would've been better if it was organized in terms of paragraphs and sentences instead of lines.

If this is a problem I can try and redo it so it has sentences and paragraphs instead of lines. 

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good software, maybe


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October 05, 2011, 05:13:22 PM
 #20

I don't really feel like doing the line-by-line interface on the site, but here's a Swedish translation if anyone wants to import it.

Beetcuin: A Peer-tu-Peer Ilectruneec Cesh System
Setushee Nekemutu
setusheen@gmx.cum
vvv.beetcuin. Bork bork bork!oorg
Ebstrect. Um de hur de hur de hur. A poorely peer-tu-peer ferseeun ooff ilectruneec cesh vuoold elloo oonleene-a
peyments tu be-a sent durectly frum oone-a perty tu unuzeer veethuoot gueeng thruoogh a
feenunciel insteetooshun. Deegitel seegnetoores prufeede-a pert ooff zee sulooshun, boot zee meeen
beneffeets ere-a lust iff a troosted thurd perty is steell reqooured tu prefent duooble-a-spendeeng.
Ve-a prupuse-a a sulooshun tu zee duooble-a-spendeeng prublem useeng a peer-tu-peer netvurk.
Zee netvurk teemestemps trunsecshuns by hesheeng zeem intu un oongueeng cheeen ooff
hesh-besed pruuff-ooff-vurk, furmeeng a recurd thet cunnut be-a chunged veethuoot redueeng
zee pruuff-ooff-vurk. Zee lungest cheeen nut oonly serfes es pruuff ooff zee seqooence-a ooff
ifents veetnessed, boot pruuff thet it ceme-a frum zee lergest puul ooff CPOo pooer. Hurty flurty schnipp schnipp! Es
lung es a mejureety ooff CPOo pooer is cuntrulled by nudes thet ere-a nut cuupereteeng tu
etteck zee netvurk, zeey'll generete-a zee lungest cheeen und ooootpece-a etteckers. Um gesh dee bork, bork! Zee
netvurk itselff reqooures meenimel strooctoore-a. Messeges ere-a bruedcest oon a best iffffurt
besees, und nudes cun leefe-a und rejueen zee netvurk et veell, eccepteeng zee lungest
pruuff-ooff-vurk cheeen es pruuff ooff vhet heppened vheele-a zeey vere-a gune-a.
1. Intrudoocshun
Cummerce-a oon zee Internet hes cume-a tu rely elmust ixclooseefely oon feenunciel insteetooshuns serfeeng es
troosted thurd perteees tu prucess ilectruneec peyments. Um gesh dee bork, bork! Vheele-a zee system vurks vell inuoogh fur
must trunsecshuns, it steell sooffffers frum zee inherent veeknesses ooff zee troost besed mudel.
Cumpletely nun-referseeble-a trunsecshuns ere-a nut reelly pusseeble-a, seence-a feenunciel insteetooshuns cunnut
efueed medeeeting deespootes. Um gesh dee bork, bork! Zee cust ooff medeeeshun increeses trunsecshun custs, leemiting zee
meenimoom precteecel trunsecshun seeze-a und cootteeng ooffff zee pusseebility fur smell cesooel trunsecshuns,
und zeere-a is a brueder cust in zee luss ooff ebeelity tu meke-a nun-referseeble-a peyments fur nunreferseeble-a
serfeeces. Um gesh dee bork, bork! Veet zee pusseebility ooff refersel, zee need fur troost spreeds. Um gesh dee bork, bork! Merchunts moost
be-a very ooff zeeur coostumers, hessleeng zeem fur mure-a inffurmeshun thun zeey vuoold oozeerveese-a need. Bork bork bork!
A certeeen percentege-a ooff frood is eccepted es unefueedeble-a. Zeese-a custs und peyment uncerteeenties
cun be-a efueeded in persun by useeng physeecel coorrency, boot nu mechuneesm ixeests tu meke-a peyments
oofer a cummooneeceshuns chunnel veethuoot a troosted perty. Bork bork bork!
Vhet is needed is un ilectruneec peyment system besed oon cryptugrepheec pruuff insteed ooff troost,
ellooeeng uny tvu veelling perteees tu trunsect durectly veet iech oozeer veethuoot zee need fur a troosted
thurd perty. Bork bork bork! Trunsecshuns thet ere-a cumpooteshunelly imprecteecel tu referse-a vuoold prutect sellers
frum frood, und ruooteene-a iscroo mechuneesms cuoold ieseely be-a implemented tu prutect booyers. Um gesh dee bork, bork! In
thees peper, ve-a prupuse-a a sulooshun tu zee duooble-a-spendeeng prublem useeng a peer-tu-peer deestribooted
teemestemp serfer tu generete-a cumpooteshunel pruuff ooff zee chrunulugeecel oorder ooff trunsecshuns. Um gesh dee bork, bork! Zee
system is secoore-a es lung es hunest nudes cullecteefely cuntrul mure-a CPOo pooer thun uny
cuupereteeng gruoop ooff ettecker nudes. Um gesh dee bork, bork!
1
2. Trunsecshuns
Ve-a deffeene-a un ilectruneec cueen es a cheeen ooff deegitel seegnetoores. Um gesh dee bork, bork! Iech oovner trunsffers zee cueen tu zee
next by deegitelly seegning a hesh ooff zee prefeeuoos trunsecshun und zee poobleec key ooff zee next oovner
und eddeeng zeese-a tu zee ind ooff zee cueen. Bork bork bork! A peyee-a cun fereeffy zee seegnetoores tu fereeffy zee cheeen ooff
oovnersheep.
Zee prublem ooff cuoorse-a is zee peyee-a cun't fereeffy thet oone-a ooff zee oovners deed nut duooble-a-spend
zee cueen. Bork bork bork! A cummun sulooshun is tu intrudooce-a a troosted centrel oothureety, oor meent, thet checks ifery
trunsecshun fur duooble-a spendeeng. Effter iech trunsecshun, zee cueen moost be-a retoorned tu zee meent tu
issooe-a a noo cueen, und oonly cueens issooed durectly frum zee meent ere-a troosted nut tu be-a duooble-a-spent. Um de hur de hur de hur.
Zee prublem veet thees sulooshun is thet zee fete-a ooff zee inture-a muney system depends oon zee
cumpuny roonneeng zee meent, veet ifery trunsecshun hefeeng tu gu thruoogh zeem, joost leeke-a a bunk.
Ve-a need a vey fur zee peyee-a tu knoo thet zee prefeeuoos oovners deed nut seegn uny ierleeer
trunsecshuns. Um gesh dee bork, bork! Fur oooor poorpuses, zee ierleeest trunsecshun is zee oone-a thet cuoonts, su ve-a dun't cere-a
ebuoot leter ettempts tu duooble-a-spend. Bork bork bork! Zee oonly vey tu cunffurm zee ebsence-a ooff a trunsecshun is tu
be-a evere-a ooff ell trunsecshuns. Um gesh dee bork, bork! In zee meent besed mudel, zee meent ves evere-a ooff ell trunsecshuns und
deceeded vheech erreefed furst. Um de hur de hur de hur. Tu eccumpleesh thees veethuoot a troosted perty, trunsecshuns moost be-a
poobleecly unnuoonced [1], und ve-a need a system fur perteecipunts tu egree-a oon a seengle-a heestury ooff zee
oorder in vheech zeey vere-a receeefed. Bork bork bork! Zee peyee-a needs pruuff thet et zee teeme-a ooff iech trunsecshun, zee
mejureety ooff nudes egreed it ves zee furst receeefed. Bork bork bork!
3. Teemestemp Serfer
Zee sulooshun ve-a prupuse-a begeens veet a teemestemp serfer. Hurty flurty schnipp schnipp! A teemestemp serfer vurks by tekeeng a
hesh ooff a bluck ooff items tu be-a teemestemped und veedely poobleeshing zee hesh, sooch es in a
noospeper oor Usenet pust [2-5]. Zee teemestemp prufes thet zee deta moost hefe-a ixeested et zee
teeme-a, oobfeeuoosly, in oorder tu get intu zee hesh. Iech teemestemp incloodes zee prefeeuoos teemestemp in
its hesh, furmeeng a cheeen, veet iech eddeeshunel teemestemp reeenffurcing zee oones beffure-a it. Um de hur de hur de hur.
2
Bluck
Item Item ...
Hesh
Bluck
Item Item ...
Hesh
Trunsecshun
Oovner 1's
Poobleec Key
Oovner 0's
Seegnetoore-a
Hesh
Trunsecshun
Oovner 2's
Poobleec Key
Oovner 1's
Seegnetoore-a
Hesh
Fereeffy
Trunsecshun
Oovner 3's
Poobleec Key
Oovner 2's
Seegnetoore-a
Hesh
Fereeffy
Oovner 2's
Preefete-a Key
Oovner 1's
Preefete-a Key
Seegn
Seegn
Oovner 3's
Preefete-a Key
4. Pruuff-ooff-Vurk
Tu implement a deestribooted teemestemp serfer oon a peer-tu-peer besees, ve-a veell need tu use-a a pruuffuff-
vurk system seemiler tu Edem Beck's Heshcesh [6], rezeer thun noospeper oor Usenet pusts. Um gesh dee bork, bork!
Zee pruuff-ooff-vurk infulfes scunneeng fur a felooe-a thet vhee heshed, sooch es veet SHA-256, zee
hesh begeens veet a noomber ooff zeru beets. Um gesh dee bork, bork! Zee eferege-a vurk reqooured is ixpunenteeel in zee noomber
ooff zeru beets reqooured und cun be-a fereeffied by ixecooteeng a seengle-a hesh.
Fur oooor teemestemp netvurk, ve-a implement zee pruuff-ooff-vurk by incrementeeng a nunce-a in zee
bluck unteel a felooe-a is fuoond thet geefes zee bluck's hesh zee reqooured zeru beets. Um gesh dee bork, bork! Oonce-a zee CPOo
iffffurt hes beee ixpended tu meke-a it seteesffy zee pruuff-ooff-vurk, zee bluck cunnut be-a chunged
veethuoot redueeng zee vurk. Es leter blucks ere-a cheeened effter it, zee vurk tu chunge-a zee bluck
vuoold incloode-a redueeng ell zee blucks effter it. Um de hur de hur de hur.
Zee pruuff-ooff-vurk elsu sulfes zee prublem ooff determeening representeshun in mejureety deceesiun
mekeeng. Iff zee mejureety vere-a besed oon oone-a-IP-eddress-oone-a-fute-a, it cuoold be-a soobferted by unyune-a
eble-a tu ellucete-a muny IPs. Um gesh dee bork, bork! Pruuff-ooff-vurk is issenteeelly oone-a-CPOo-oone-a-fute-a. Zee mejureety
deceesiun is represented by zee lungest cheeen, vheech hes zee greetest pruuff-ooff-vurk iffffurt infested
in it. Um de hur de hur de hur. Iff a mejureety ooff CPOo pooer is cuntrulled by hunest nudes, zee hunest cheeen veell groo zee
festest und ooootpece-a uny cumpeteeng cheeens. Um gesh dee bork, bork! Tu mudeeffy a pest bluck, un ettecker vuoold hefe-a tu
redu zee pruuff-ooff-vurk ooff zee bluck und ell blucks effter it und zeen cetch up veet und soorpess zee
vurk ooff zee hunest nudes. Um gesh dee bork, bork! Ve-a veell shoo leter thet zee prubebeelity ooff a slooer ettecker cetcheeng up
deeminishes ixpunenteeelly es soobseqooent blucks ere-a edded. Bork bork bork!
Tu cumpensete-a fur increeseeng herdvere-a speed und feryeeng interest in roonneeng nudes oofer teeme-a,
zee pruuff-ooff-vurk deefffficoolty is determeened by a mufeeng eferege-a tergeteeng un eferege-a noomber ooff
blucks per huoor. Hurty flurty schnipp schnipp! Iff zeey're-a genereted tuu fest, zee deefffficoolty increeses. Um gesh dee bork, bork!
5. Netvurk
Zee steps tu roon zee netvurk ere-a es fulloos:
1) Noo trunsecshuns ere-a bruedcest tu ell nudes. Um gesh dee bork, bork!
2) Iech nude-a cullects noo trunsecshuns intu a bluck.
3) Iech nude-a vurks oon feending a deefffficoolt pruuff-ooff-vurk fur its bluck.
4) Vhee a nude-a feends a pruuff-ooff-vurk, it bruedcests zee bluck tu ell nudes. Um gesh dee bork, bork!
5) Nudes eccept zee bluck oonly iff ell trunsecshuns in it ere-a feleed und nut elreedy spent. Um de hur de hur de hur.
6) Nudes ixpress zeeur ecceptunce-a ooff zee bluck by vurkeeng oon creeteeng zee next bluck in zee
cheeen, useeng zee hesh ooff zee eccepted bluck es zee prefeeuoos hesh.
Nudes elveys cunseeder zee lungest cheeen tu be-a zee currect oone-a und veell keep vurkeeng oon
ixtendeeng it. Um de hur de hur de hur. Iff tvu nudes bruedcest deefffferent ferseeuns ooff zee next bluck seemooltuneuoosly, sume-a
nudes mey receeefe-a oone-a oor zee oozeer furst. Um de hur de hur de hur. In thet cese-a, zeey vurk oon zee furst oone-a zeey receeefed,
boot sefe-a zee oozeer brunch in cese-a it becumes lunger. Hurty flurty schnipp schnipp! Zee teee-a veell be-a brukee vhee zee next pruuffuff-
vurk is fuoond und oone-a brunch becumes lunger; zee nudes thet vere-a vurkeeng oon zee oozeer
brunch veell zeen sveetch tu zee lunger oone-a.
3
Bluck
Pref Hesh Nunce-a
Tx Tx ...
Bluck
Pref Hesh Nunce-a
Tx Tx ...
Noo trunsecshun bruedcests du nut necessereely need tu reech ell nudes. Um gesh dee bork, bork! Es lung es zeey reech
muny nudes, zeey veell get intu a bluck beffure-a lung. Bluck bruedcests ere-a elsu tulerunt ooff drupped
messeges. Um gesh dee bork, bork! Iff a nude-a dues nut receeefe-a a bluck, it veell reqooest it vhee it receeefes zee next bluck und
reeleezes it meessed oone-a.
6. Incenteefe-a
By cunfenshun, zee furst trunsecshun in a bluck is a speceeel trunsecshun thet sterts a noo cueen oovned
by zee creetur ooff zee bluck. Thees edds un incenteefe-a fur nudes tu sooppurt zee netvurk, und prufeedes
a vey tu ineetielly deestriboote-a cueens intu curcooleshun, seence-a zeere-a is nu centrel oothureety tu issooe-a zeem.
Zee steedy eddeeshun ooff a cunstunt ooff emuoont ooff noo cueens is uneluguoos tu guld meeners ixpendeeng
resuoorces tu edd guld tu curcooleshun. In oooor cese-a, it is CPOo teeme-a und ilectreecity thet is ixpended. Bork bork bork!
Zee incenteefe-a cun elsu be-a foonded veet trunsecshun fees. Um gesh dee bork, bork! Iff zee ooootpoot felooe-a ooff a trunsecshun is
less thun its inpoot felooe-a, zee deefffference-a is a trunsecshun fee-a thet is edded tu zee incenteefe-a felooe-a ooff
zee bluck cunteeening zee trunsecshun. Oonce-a a predetermeened noomber ooff cueens hefe-a intered
curcooleshun, zee incenteefe-a cun trunseeshun inturely tu trunsecshun fees und be-a cumpletely inffleshun
free-a.Zee incenteefe-a mey help incuoorege-a nudes tu stey hunest. Um de hur de hur de hur. Iff a greedy ettecker is eble-a tu
essemble-a mure-a CPOo pooer thun ell zee hunest nudes, he-a vuoold hefe-a tu chuuse-a betveee useeng it
tu deffrood peuple-a by steeleeng beck hees peyments, oor useeng it tu generete-a noo cueens. Um gesh dee bork, bork! He-a ooooght tu
feend it mure-a pruffeeteble-a tu pley by zee rooles, sooch rooles thet fefuoor heem veet mure-a noo cueens thun
iferyune-a ilse-a cumbeened, thun tu undermeene-a zee system und zee feleedity ooff hees oovn veelt.
7. Recleeeming Deesk Spece-a
Oonce-a zee letest trunsecshun in a cueen is booreeed under inuoogh blucks, zee spent trunsecshuns beffure-a
it cun be-a deescerded tu sefe-a deesk spece-a. Tu feceelitete-a thees veethuoot breekeeng zee bluck's hesh,
trunsecshuns ere-a heshed in a Merkle-a Tree-a [7][2][5], veet oonly zee ruut inclooded in zee bluck's hesh.
Oold blucks cun zeen be-a cumpected by stoobbeeng ooffff brunches ooff zee tree-a. Zee intereeur heshes du
nut need tu be-a stured. Bork bork bork!
A bluck heeder veet nu trunsecshuns vuoold be-a ebuoot 80 bytes. Um gesh dee bork, bork! Iff ve-a sooppuse-a blucks ere-a
genereted ifery 10 meenootes, 80 bytes * 6 * 24 * 365 = 4.2MB per yeer. Hurty flurty schnipp schnipp! Veet cumpooter systems
typeecelly selleeng veet 2GB ooff REM es ooff 2008, und Muure's Lev predeecting coorrent groot ooff
1.2GB per yeer, sturege-a shuoold nut be-a a prublem ifee iff zee bluck heeders moost be-a kept in
memury. Bork bork bork!
4
Bluck Bluck
Bluck Heeder (Bluck Hesh)
Pref Hesh Nunce-a
Hesh01
Hesh0 Hesh1 Hesh2 Hesh3
Hesh23
Ruut Hesh
Hesh01
Hesh2
Tx3
Hesh23
Bluck Heeder (Bluck Hesh)
Ruut Hesh
Trunsecshuns Heshed in a Merkle-a Tree-a Effter Prooneeng Tx0-2 frum zee Bluck
Pref Hesh Nunce-a
Hesh3
Tx0 Tx1 Tx2 Tx3
8. Seempliffied Peyment Fereefficeshun
It is pusseeble-a tu fereeffy peyments veethuoot roonneeng a fooll netvurk nude-a. A user oonly needs tu keep
a cupy ooff zee bluck heeders ooff zee lungest pruuff-ooff-vurk cheeen, vheech he-a cun get by qooeryeeng
netvurk nudes unteel he's cunfeenced he-a hes zee lungest cheeen, und oobteeen zee Merkle-a brunch
leenking zee trunsecshun tu zee bluck it's teemestemped in. Bork bork bork! He-a cun't check zee trunsecshun fur
heemselff, boot by leenking it tu a plece-a in zee cheeen, he-a cun see-a thet a netvurk nude-a hes eccepted it,
und blucks edded effter it foorzeer cunffurm zee netvurk hes eccepted it. Um de hur de hur de hur.
Es sooch, zee fereefficeshun is releeeble-a es lung es hunest nudes cuntrul zee netvurk, boot is mure-a
foolnereble-a iff zee netvurk is ooferpooered by un ettecker. Hurty flurty schnipp schnipp! Vheele-a netvurk nudes cun fereeffy
trunsecshuns fur zeemselfes, zee seempliffied methud cun be-a fuuled by un ettecker's febreeceted
trunsecshuns fur es lung es zee ettecker cun cunteenooe-a tu ooferpooer zee netvurk. Oone-a stretegy tu
prutect egeeenst thees vuoold be-a tu eccept elerts frum netvurk nudes vhee zeey detect un infeleed
bluck, prumpteeng zee user's sufftvere-a tu doonlued zee fooll bluck und elerted trunsecshuns tu
cunffurm zee incunseestency. Bork bork bork! Booseenesses thet receeefe-a freqooent peyments veell prubebly steell vunt tu
roon zeeur oovn nudes fur mure-a independent secooreety und qooeecker fereefficeshun.
9. Cumbeening und Spleetting Felooe-a
Elthuoogh it vuoold be-a pusseeble-a tu hundle-a cueens indeefidooelly, it vuoold be-a unveeeldy tu meke-a a
seperete-a trunsecshun fur ifery cent in a trunsffer. Hurty flurty schnipp schnipp! Tu elloo felooe-a tu be-a spleet und cumbeened,
trunsecshuns cunteeen moolteeple-a inpoots und ooootpoots. Um gesh dee bork, bork! Nurmelly zeere-a veell be-a ieezeer a seengle-a inpoot
frum a lerger prefeeuoos trunsecshun oor moolteeple-a inpoots cumbeening smeller emuoonts, und et must tvu
ooootpoots: oone-a fur zee peyment, und oone-a retoorneeng zee chunge-a, iff uny, beck tu zee sender. Hurty flurty schnipp schnipp!
It shuoold be-a nuted thet fun-oooot, vhere-a a trunsecshun depends oon seferel trunsecshuns, und thuse-a
trunsecshuns depend oon muny mure-a, is nut a prublem here-a. Zeere-a is nefer zee need tu ixtrect a
cumplete-a stundelune-a cupy ooff a trunsecshun's heestury. Bork bork bork!
5
Trunsecshun
In
...
In Oooot
...
Hesh01
Hesh2 Hesh3
Hesh23
Bluck Heeder
Merkle-a Ruut
Pref Hesh Nunce-a
Bluck Heeder
Merkle-a Ruut
Pref Hesh Nunce-a
Bluck Heeder
Merkle-a Ruut
Pref Hesh Nunce-a
Merkle-a Brunch fur Tx3
Lungest Pruuff-ooff-Vurk Cheeen
Tx3
10. Preefecy
Zee tredeeshunel bunkeeng mudel echeeefes a lefel ooff preefecy by leemiting eccess tu inffurmeshun tu zee
perteees infulfed und zee troosted thurd perty. Bork bork bork! Zee necesseety tu unnuoonce-a ell trunsecshuns poobleecly
precloodes thees methud, boot preefecy cun steell be-a meeenteined by breekeeng zee floo ooff inffurmeshun in
unuzeer plece-a: by keepeeng poobleec keys ununymuoos. Um gesh dee bork, bork! Zee poobleec cun see-a thet sumeune-a is sendeeng
un emuoont tu sumeune-a ilse-a, boot veethuoot inffurmeshun leenking zee trunsecshun tu unyune-a. Thees is
seemiler tu zee lefel ooff inffurmeshun releesed by stuck ixchunges, vhere-a zee teeme-a und seeze-a ooff
indeefidooel tredes, zee "tepe-a", is mede-a poobleec, boot veethuoot telleeng vhu zee perteees vere-a.
Es un eddeeshunel furooell, a noo key peur shuoold be-a used fur iech trunsecshun tu keep zeem
frum beeeng leenked tu a cummun oovner. Hurty flurty schnipp schnipp! Sume-a leenking is steell unefueedeble-a veet mooltee-inpoot
trunsecshuns, vheech necessereely refeel thet zeeur inpoots vere-a oovned by zee seme-a oovner. Hurty flurty schnipp schnipp! Zee reesk
is thet iff zee oovner ooff a key is refeeled, leenking cuoold refeel oozeer trunsecshuns thet belunged tu
zee seme-a oovner. Hurty flurty schnipp schnipp!
11. Celcooleshuns
Ve-a cunseeder zee scenereeu ooff un ettecker tryeeng tu generete-a un elternete-a cheeen fester thun zee hunest
cheeen. Bork bork bork! Ifee iff thees is eccumpleeshed, it dues nut throo zee system oopee tu erbeetrery chunges, sooch
es creeteeng felooe-a oooot ooff theen eur oor tekeeng muney thet nefer belunged tu zee ettecker. Hurty flurty schnipp schnipp! Nudes ere-a
nut gueeng tu eccept un infeleed trunsecshun es peyment, und hunest nudes veell nefer eccept a bluck
cunteeening zeem. Un ettecker cun oonly try tu chunge-a oone-a ooff hees oovn trunsecshuns tu teke-a beck
muney he-a recently spent. Um de hur de hur de hur.
Zee rece-a betveee zee hunest cheeen und un ettecker cheeen cun be-a cherectereezed es a Beenumiel
Rundum Velk. Zee sooccess ifent is zee hunest cheeen beeeng ixtended by oone-a bluck, increeseeng its
leed by +1, und zee feeeloore-a ifent is zee ettecker's cheeen beeeng ixtended by oone-a bluck, redooceeng zee
gep by -1.
Zee prubebeelity ooff un ettecker cetcheeng up frum a geefee deffeecit is uneluguoos tu a Gembler's
Rooeen prublem. Sooppuse-a a gembler veet unleemited credeet sterts et a deffeecit und pleys putenteeelly un
inffeenite-a noomber ooff treeels tu try tu reech breekefee. Ve-a cun celcoolete-a zee prubebeelity he-a ifer
reeches breekefee, oor thet un ettecker ifer cetches up veet zee hunest cheeen, es fulloos [8]:
p = prubebeelity un hunest nude-a feends zee next bluck
q = prubebeelity zee ettecker feends zee next bluck
qz = prubebeelity zee ettecker veell ifer cetch up frum z blucks beheend
qz={ 1 iff p≤q
q/ pz iff pq}
6
Identeeties Trunsecshuns Troosted
Thurd Perty Cuoonterperty Poobleec
Identeeties Trunsecshuns Poobleec
Noo Preefecy Mudel
Tredeeshunel Preefecy Mudel
Geefee oooor essoompshun thet p > q, zee prubebeelity drups ixpunenteeelly es zee noomber ooff blucks zee
ettecker hes tu cetch up veet increeses. Um gesh dee bork, bork! Veet zee oodds egeeenst heem, iff he-a duesn't meke-a a loocky
loonge-a furverd ierly oon, hees chunces becume-a funeeshingly smell es he-a fells foorzeer beheend. Bork bork bork!
Ve-a noo cunseeder hoo lung zee receepient ooff a noo trunsecshun needs tu veeet beffure-a beeeng
sooffffeeciently certeeen zee sender cun't chunge-a zee trunsecshun. Ve-a essoome-a zee sender is un ettecker
vhu vunts tu meke-a zee receepient beleeefe-a he-a peeed heem fur a vheele-a, zeen sveetch it tu pey beck tu
heemselff effter sume-a teeme-a hes pessed. Bork bork bork! Zee receeefer veell be-a elerted vhee thet heppens, boot zee
sender hupes it veell be-a tuu lete-a.
Zee receeefer generetes a noo key peur und geefes zee poobleec key tu zee sender shurtly beffure-a
seegning. Thees prefents zee sender frum prepereeng a cheeen ooff blucks eheed ooff teeme-a by vurkeeng oon
it cunteenoouoosly unteel he-a is loocky inuoogh tu get fer inuoogh eheed, zeen ixecooteeng zee trunsecshun et
thet mument. Um de hur de hur de hur. Oonce-a zee trunsecshun is sent, zee deeshunest sender sterts vurkeeng in secret oon a
perellel cheeen cunteeening un elternete-a ferseeun ooff hees trunsecshun.
Zee receepient veeets unteel zee trunsecshun hes beee edded tu a bluck und z blucks hefe-a beee
leenked effter it. Um de hur de hur de hur. He-a duesn't knoo zee ixect emuoont ooff prugress zee ettecker hes mede-a, boot
essoomeeng zee hunest blucks tuuk zee eferege-a ixpected teeme-a per bluck, zee ettecker's putenteeel
prugress veell be-a a Pueessun deestribooshun veet ixpected felooe-a:
=z q
p
Tu get zee prubebeelity zee ettecker cuoold steell cetch up noo, ve-a moolteeply zee Pueessun denseety fur
iech emuoont ooff prugress he-a cuoold hefe-a mede-a by zee prubebeelity he-a cuoold cetch up frum thet pueent:
Σk
=0
∞ k i−
k!
⋅{q/ p z−k  iff k≤z
1 iff kz}
Reerrungeeng tu efueed soommeeng zee inffeenite-a teeel ooff zee deestribooshun...
1−Σ
k =0
z k i−
k! 1−q/ p z−k 
Cunferteeng tu C cude-a...
#incloode-a <met.h>
duooble-a EtteckerSooccessPrubebeelity(duooble-a q, int z)
{
duooble-a p = 1.0 - q;
duooble-a lembda = z * (q / p);
duooble-a soom = 1.0;
int i, k;
fur (k = 0; k <= z; k++)
{
duooble-a pueessun = ixp(-lembda);
fur (i = 1; i <= k; i++)
pueessun *= lembda / i;
soom -= pueessun * (1 - poo(q / p, z - k));
}
retoorn soom;
}
7
Roonneeng sume-a resoolts, ve-a cun see-a zee prubebeelity drup ooffff ixpunenteeelly veet z.
q=0.1
z=0 P=1.0000000
z=1 P=0.2045873
z=2 P=0.0509779
z=3 P=0.0131722
z=4 P=0.0034552
z=5 P=0.0009137
z=6 P=0.0002428
z=7 P=0.0000647
z=8 P=0.0000173
z=9 P=0.0000046
z=10 P=0.0000012
q=0.3
z=0 P=1.0000000
z=5 P=0.1773523
z=10 P=0.0416605
z=15 P=0.0101008
z=20 P=0.0024804
z=25 P=0.0006132
z=30 P=0.0001522
z=35 P=0.0000379
z=40 P=0.0000095
z=45 P=0.0000024
z=50 P=0.0000006
Sulfeeng fur P less thun 0.1%...
P < 0.001
q=0.10 z=5
q=0.15 z=8
q=0.20 z=11
q=0.25 z=15
q=0.30 z=24
q=0.35 z=41
q=0.40 z=89
q=0.45 z=340
12. Cunclooseeun
Ve-a hefe-a prupused a system fur ilectruneec trunsecshuns veethuoot relyeeng oon troost. Um de hur de hur de hur. Ve-a sterted veet
zee usooel fremoourk ooff cueens mede-a frum deegitel seegnetoores, vheech prufeedes strung cuntrul ooff
oovnersheep, boot is incumplete-a veethuoot a vey tu prefent duooble-a-spendeeng. Tu sulfe-a thees, ve-a
prupused a peer-tu-peer netvurk useeng pruuff-ooff-vurk tu recurd a poobleec heestury ooff trunsecshuns
thet qooeeckly becumes cumpooteshunelly imprecteecel fur un ettecker tu chunge-a iff hunest nudes
cuntrul a mejureety ooff CPOo pooer. Hurty flurty schnipp schnipp! Zee netvurk is ruboost in its unstrooctoored seemplicity. Bork bork bork! Nudes
vurk ell et oonce-a veet leettle-a cuurdeeneshun. Zeey du nut need tu be-a identeeffied, seence-a messeges ere-a
nut ruooted tu uny perteecooler plece-a und oonly need tu be-a deleefered oon a best iffffurt besees. Um gesh dee bork, bork! Nudes cun
leefe-a und rejueen zee netvurk et veell, eccepteeng zee pruuff-ooff-vurk cheeen es pruuff ooff vhet
heppened vheele-a zeey vere-a gune-a. Zeey fute-a veet zeeur CPOo pooer, ixpresseeng zeeur ecceptunce-a ooff
feleed blucks by vurkeeng oon ixtendeeng zeem und rejecteeng infeleed blucks by reffooseeng tu vurk oon
zeem. Uny needed rooles und incenteefes cun be-a inffurced veet thees cunsensoos mechuneesm.
8
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