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Author Topic: [ANN][rICO]Antshares Blockchain Mainnet is ONLINE!  (Read 1297530 times)
muleroaa
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February 09, 2017, 07:48:14 PM
 #5421

I think they just left behind important news about antshares, but it is also necessary to add another trading site for antshares
Do you want to add the token to poloniex? This will not happen ever.

Why not?

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February 10, 2017, 06:54:03 AM
 #5422

FYI:

Some major Chinese traders got scared of the halt on Bitcoin withdrawals in the three major Chinese exchanges. It seems they are moving funds to Western exchanges. Antshares asks side in Bittrex doubled because of this.

An increase in trading volume in Bittrex will confirm this.

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sxafir
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February 10, 2017, 07:02:00 AM
 #5423

Chinese have now fee in his market and in chinese Btc will be sell and buying in shop for stuff.
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February 10, 2017, 07:09:19 AM
 #5424

FYI:

Some major Chinese traders got scared of the halt on Bitcoin withdrawals in the three major Chinese exchanges. It seems they are moving funds to Western exchanges. Antshares asks side in Bittrex doubled because of this.

An increase in trading volume in Bittrex will confirm this.
I don't think the increase is that significant, the two exchanges affected were not the ones that have the largest trading volume in China. The 24 hours volume of Antshares is just 6 BTC in all the exchanges

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February 10, 2017, 07:15:56 AM
 #5425

FYI:

Some major Chinese traders got scared of the halt on Bitcoin withdrawals in the three major Chinese exchanges. It seems they are moving funds to Western exchanges. Antshares asks side in Bittrex doubled because of this.

An increase in trading volume in Bittrex will confirm this.
we will see

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February 10, 2017, 03:11:17 PM
 #5426

FYI:

Some major Chinese traders got scared of the halt on Bitcoin withdrawals in the three major Chinese exchanges. It seems they are moving funds to Western exchanges. Antshares asks side in Bittrex doubled because of this.

An increase in trading volume in Bittrex will confirm this.

...and the bids side is halved...less then 4BTC support ATM

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February 10, 2017, 03:22:16 PM
 #5427

Half the ship already sinking how can people still think i can run again Smiley)
Only way is another half going down .

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February 10, 2017, 06:32:19 PM
 #5428

FYI:

Some major Chinese traders got scared of the halt on Bitcoin withdrawals in the three major Chinese exchanges. It seems they are moving funds to Western exchanges. Antshares asks side in Bittrex doubled because of this.

An increase in trading volume in Bittrex will confirm this.
I don't think the increase is that significant, the two exchanges affected were not the ones that have the largest trading volume in China. The 24 hours volume of Antshares is just 6 BTC in all the exchanges

If they are moving funds to western exchanges then the buy side should be increasing not the sell side, unless they are moving antshares from the chinese exchanges. 

Really dont think this will have a long-term effect unless they come out and permanently ban bitcoin in the whole country.  They are just doing  short-term manipulation.

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February 10, 2017, 06:42:15 PM
 #5429

FYI:

Some major Chinese traders got scared of the halt on Bitcoin withdrawals in the three major Chinese exchanges. It seems they are moving funds to Western exchanges. Antshares asks side in Bittrex doubled because of this.

An increase in trading volume in Bittrex will confirm this.
I don't think the increase is that significant, the two exchanges affected were not the ones that have the largest trading volume in China. The 24 hours volume of Antshares is just 6 BTC in all the exchanges

If they are moving funds to western exchanges then the buy side should be increasing not the sell side, unless they are moving antshares from the chinese exchanges. 

Really dont think this will have a long-term effect unless they come out and permanently ban bitcoin in the whole country.  They are just doing  short-term manipulation.

No whale will show their cards. Even in the Chinese exchanges, there's no thick bids, only thick asks. It's still in the accumulation phase, why hurry the buying? For the past months, the depth of the Bittrex asks was always around 100btc. Why then it suddenly doubled? Even in the distribution tab, you can immediately see 4 -6 new wallets holding significant amounts of ANS. Like I said, to confirm this, trading volume must increase.

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February 10, 2017, 07:12:50 PM
 #5430

I will keep holding my coins as the launch of Wings is coming near in next month which will also be used to increase the value of this coin also. I have also bought some as I could at recent lower prices and still am confident about the bounce back. Chinese of course are playing with Bitcoin price but with this will see what happens in the end.

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February 12, 2017, 02:48:44 PM
 #5431

I will keep holding my coins as the launch of Wings is coming near in next month which will also be used to increase the value of this coin also. I have also bought some as I could at recent lower prices and still am confident about the bounce back. Chinese of course are playing with Bitcoin price but with this will see what happens in the end.

Shhh... it might be the "secret".

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February 12, 2017, 08:56:35 PM
 #5432

antshares.org down?

MoveCrypto for Komodo Notary
https://komodoplatform.com/
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February 13, 2017, 09:09:09 AM
 #5433

antshares.org down?

Runnng well here.

Also try this: http://isitdownorjust.me

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February 13, 2017, 01:10:46 PM
 #5434

antshares.org down?

very slow right now.

any plans for a nano wallet?

R
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February 13, 2017, 03:34:55 PM
 #5435

Meng fruit Virtual Reality
Block chain industry in 2016 has achieved rapid development, we can even foresee it in 17 years of blowout development. However, the traditional financial sector to meet the pace of the block chain technology is more like a helpless and follow the trend of the move, and other areas of the block chain project speculative property surplus. The actual floor of the application of very few scenes.

Known as the national public chain block chain of small ants chain chain since last October the main network has been running since the smooth business and technological development, the special ushered in with the Meng fruit VR team cooperation. VR is committed to R & D and distribution for the whole age of the players, the game of the game is superb VR recreational games, common in online and offline markets, high-tech rich people's entertainment. VR has previously been developed BombU game has been registered Steam Steam VR platform, has made very good sales and quality overseas market reputation, is considered the best Vive equipment VR game, won the third prize in the CE VR developer contest name.



Asked why to explore the game + block chain technology, Meng fruit fruit VR senior project manager, said:

"The ultimate goal is to create a virtual world for the user to create a Western world, a hacker empire, a virtual world to achieve all the players dream, players can create, buy and trade a variety of virtual items and content , Maps, buildings, roles, skin, clothing, etc., and even images, music and video content.) And the block chain technology to build the game currency (token) system, virtual assets system can best protect the creation of virtual players The copyright of the content ensures the fairness, transparency, speed and low cost of in - game transactions, and the block chain technology also creates a favorable and fair cooperation environment for us to cooperate with other companies in the process of perfecting this virtual world.
The nature of the public books of the block chain technology determines the non-tamperability and traceability of the data records, and his global transparency can also solve the black box problem in the traditional game economic system. As has been "General Principles of Civil Law (Draft)" as a kind of virtual property, only block chain technology can be protected.

Not only that, the block chain technology blessing will make a lot of previously impossible or excessive reliance on a single point of trust game ecology becomes possible, high source said:

"Our game contains the contents of e - sports, using the application block chain technology transmission and storage of competitive game data, can be an excellent guarantee of competitive fairness, so as to lay the foundation for professional athletic competition,
And the use of block chain technology to do gaming ecology, Meng fruit VR is not the first. Previously, the "First Blood" game based on the Ether Square block chain had successfully raised approximately $ 5 million in development funds through the Gambling Platform (the project team in Boston). But the team itself, after all, is not a professional game developers, can not be obtained from the Ether Foundation, like the small ants in the Meng Meng fruit VR technical support. In this regard, high-source said:

"The small ants as the most professional and most influential block chain technology service team, has a complete advanced technology reserves, a huge community.Based on the business model of small ants, development direction and technical level and the height of the small ants team Recognition, we choose to expand the depth of cooperation with the ants.
In addition, it is well known that the current game market, content providers and publishers are divided into three or seven, the former can not even get three, the issuer channel monopoly also hinders the developer feedback to consumers, Affect the market evaluation, and even direct loss of the entire game development cycle of many initiative. In this regard, Meng fruit VR is committed to independent agent release game, and the formation of the United States team to ensure that the game's overseas R & D and distribution.

So the two cooperation, but also to explore the technology based on the block chain game distribution, props transactions and social networking platform. Based on the block chain technology of steam / TGP platform, the game props can use the small ants block chain to achieve the right, security protection and chain flow; the game itself can refer to the economic system block economic model, the game Production, distribution and circulation of domestic currency (tokens, props). More importantly, such a platform will greatly reduce or even eliminate the props transaction fraud, evaluation system in the water army brush sub-behavior, thus achieving a more direct, pure developer-player interaction, but also reduced the two Their respective risks and costs.

Meng fruit VR and small ants team's first cooperation game is in full swing among the development, so stay tuned. Spoilers look: the game draws on the background of Chinese mythology, riding and stabbing the operation logic, H1Z1 Battle Royale game mode, and fully supports all kinds of the latest VR equipment.



known as domestic public blocks chain benchmark of small ants blocks chain has remained steady commercial and technical development since last October, the main network run, this special Ushered in cooperation with Meng fruit VR team .

VR is committed to R & D and distribution for the whole age of the players, the game of the game is superb VR recreational games, common in online and offline markets, high-tech rich people's entertainment. VR has previously been developed BombU game has been registered Steam Steam VR platform, has made very good sales and quality overseas market reputation, is considered the best Vive equipment VR game , won the third prize in the CE VR developer contest Name .

Meng fruit VR and small ants team 's first cooperation game is in full swing among the development, so stay tuned.

Spoilers look: the game draws on the background of Chinese mythology , riding and stabbing the operation logic, H1Z1 Battle Royale game mode, and fully supports all kinds of the latest VR equipment

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February 13, 2017, 03:39:04 PM
 #5436

Cross-chain interoperability agreement, virtual machines and intelligent contracts

In 2017 the small ants team will continue to maintain innovation in the area of ​​the chain chain, to achieve cross-chain and intelligent contract to achieve complex intelligence
In the New Year live, the small ant CTO Zhang Zhengwen introduced a small ant technical aspects of the arrangements, do not know you watch it? The

first is cross-chain interoperability agreement, the second is to run a virtual contract virtual machine, we will be more functional ant ant virtual machine upgrade, the third aspect we will write a large number of intelligent contract .

Now let's talk about cross-link interoperability, we will design in 2017 a set of cross-chain interoperability agreement. What is cross-chain interoperability? Cross-chain interoperability between different blocks in the chain can occur between some of the interactive behavior, such as asset exchange, intelligent contract, and so on! Specifically there will be two protocols, one is cross-chain asset exchange protocol, a cross-chain distributed transaction protocol.

Cross-chain asset exchange is very simple, two people in different blocks through the chain to carry out the exchange of assets. Later we will release a cross-chain interoperability white paper, which has a detailed protocol algorithm and some steps.

The second aspect we have to say about the virtual machine, a small ant intelligent contract is executed in the virtual machine above. Virtual machine we will enhance its functionality, mainly the following points, the first we will provide it state of persistent storage function; the second we will provide external network can access the function, so that the virtual machine inside the smart Contracts can access some data on an external network, such as through a URL.

The third is a relatively large piece of something, we call him the function of the application, what is the application? That is, a set of features related to the smart contract they are combined, they are logically related, will share a memory area to work together to complete one thing the application function.
The fourth is the development, we will use more compilers to develop intelligent contracts. We are now working with Microsoft to develop a smart ant contract under a Microsoft IDE project using the C # language. We will develop more compilers including Java, Go, and C ++ to compile to our Smart Contract Of the language, and then more integrated and IDE, the above said is a virtual machine.
 
The following is the third aspect of intelligent contract. In 2017, we will have several smart contract items released in the chain of small ants, the first is based on small ants intelligent contract Nest, to recruit small ants to do the investment fund, known as the Ant Fund (AntNest) project.
The second we will use the smart contract to make a pow assets. We all know that the consensus mechanism of the ants is the dBFT consensus mechanism, bit coin is used pow consensus mechanism. Pow is not only a consensus mechanism but also the distribution mechanism, pow is more suitable for the production of some digital money, there will be based on the small ant chain chain pow distribution mechanism of assets. We will use the new function of a small ant intelligent contract to achieve this capability!
   
These are some of the little ants to do in 2017 to explore some of the plans. thank you all!


At present, the small ants are still in the stage of sustained Xu Li, will continue to lead the development of block chain technology, innovation.

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February 13, 2017, 03:43:44 PM
 #5437

Zhang Zhengwen: Antshares' CTO compares blockchains - published in Programmer Magazine (China)

I. Introduction
Often heard people talk about the block chain, from the birth of Bitcoin in 2009 so far, a wide range of block chain system or application based on the block chain has been developed and applied to a large number of scenes, and block Chain technology itself is constantly changing and improving.

Block chain is also known as distributed books, with the corresponding centralization of the books, such as banks. And centralization of the books is different is that distributed books rely on the book data redundancy stored in all participating nodes, to ensure the safety of books. Simply put, the block chain will use three kinds of underlying technologies: point-to-point network technology, cryptography technology and distributed consistency algorithm. In general, the block chain system will "free bonus" is called a smart contract function. Intelligent contract is not a necessary part of the block chain system, but because of the inherent chain chain decentralization features, it can provide a reliable computing environment for intelligent contract.

In order to meet the needs of different scenarios, the block chain system in the actual application process will often need to carry out various modifications to meet specific business requirements, such as identity authentication, consensus mechanism, key management, throughput, response time, privacy Protection, regulatory requirements. And the actual application of the block chain system, the company often does not have the ability to carry out such a transformation, so the market gradually appeared in a number of custom block system for the custom framework, using these frameworks can be easily customized for enterprises And its own business needs of the block chain system.

This article will be on the market today, several typical block chain framework for horizontal comparison to see what they have characteristics, and in the end what is the difference between them. In order to maintain the objectivity and fairness of the comparison, this paper will only discuss the open-source block chain framework.

Second, the block chain structure of a brief introduction
Bit currency
The bitcoin is derived from an article in 2008 titled Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic ("Peer-to-Peer Electronic") by a man named Satoshi Nakamoto. Cash System), which describes an electronic currency called "Bitcoin" and its algorithm. In the following years, Bitcoin continued to grow and mature, and its underlying technology has gradually been recognized and abstracted out, this is the block chain technology. Bitcoin as the originator of the block chain, in the block chain of the family has a pivotal position, based on Bitcoin technology to develop the mountain cottage (alt coins) as the number of stars in the sky, it is difficult to count. From the paper we can see that the purpose of the bitcoin design bitcoin, is hoping to achieve an entirely point-to-point network based on e-cash system, so that online payment can be initiated directly from one party and paid to the other party, without any intermediate Of the intermediaries . To sum up, he hopes Bitcoin to achieve the following design goals:

Currency can be issued without a central authority
No intermediary can be paid
Keep the anonymity of the user
Transactions can not be reversed
From the point of view of electronic cash system, these goals are basically realized in Bitcoin, but there are still some technical problems to be solved, such as scalability attacks, block capacity constraints, block bifurcation, scalability and so on.

In the application scenario, the current large number of digital currency projects are based on bit-currency architecture to design, in addition to some of the more practical applications, such as color coins, tØ and so on.

Colored coins, which can be distinguished from other bit-coins by careful tracking of specific bits of coins, are referred to as colored coins. They have special attributes that have value independent of the value of the coin currency, which makes it possible for developers to create other digital assets on the Bitcoin network. The color currency itself is bitcoin, storage and transfer does not require a third party, you can use the already existing Bitcoin based network.

TØ is the application of the Bitcoin block chain in the financial sector and is a block-based private and public equity trading platform launched by American online retailer Overstock.

2. Ethernet Square
The goal of EtherCentre is to provide a block chain with Turing's complete language in which contracts can be created to write any state transition function that can be created by simply implementing a few lines of code An application based on a block chain, and applied to scenes other than money.
The design philosophy of EtherCam is that it does not directly "support" any application, but Turing's complete programming language means that any contract logic in theory and any type of application can be created. To sum up, Ethernet Square in Bitcoin features, there are several design goals:

Turing a complete contract language
Built-in persistent state storage
At present, the contract based on the project has reached hundreds of Ether Square, the more famous Augur, TheDAO, Digix, FirstBlood and so on.

Augur is a de-centralized predictive market platform based on the Ethernet Square Block Chain technology. Users can use digital money to predict and bet, rely on the wisdom of the masses to predict the outcome of the development of events, can effectively eliminate the risk of the counterparty and the server center of the risk.
Limited space, based on the Ethernet platform for intelligent contract platform projects are not introduced. There are many block-chain projects based on EtherCode code, but almost all of them are closed-source projects, which can only be inferred from some open features, so they are not discussed in this paper.

3. Fabric
Fabric is a block chain framework developed by IBM and DAH and is one of the project members of the Superbook. Its function is similar to the ether square, also is a distributed intelligent contract platform. But unlike EtherCentre and Bitcoin, it is a framework from the beginning, not a public chain, and no built-in tokens.

Hyperedger is an open-source project launched by the Linux Foundation to promote block chain technology and standards in 2015. Its members include ABN AMRO, Accenture, Let members work together to build an open platform to meet from a variety of different industries, a variety of user cases, and simplify business processes.

As a block chain framework, Fabric uses a loosely coupled design, the consensus mechanism, authentication and other components of modular, so that in the application process can be easily selected according to the application scenario corresponding module. In addition, Fabric uses container technology to run smart contract codes in docker, allowing smart contracts to be written in almost any high-level language.
Here are some of Fabric's design goals:

Modular design, components can be replaced
Smart contract running on docker
There are a lot of use of fabric architecture for the development of proof of concept (POC) project in the implementation process, many of which financial institutions to make the attempt, but because the project has just started, there is no more mature landing applications.

4. Onchain DNA
Onchain DNA (Onchain Distributed Networks Architecture), a block-chain architecture developed by "Block Technology", a Shanghai-based block chain startup, can support different application types and scenarios such as public, Fast integration with business systems. Distributed technology is also a member of the super books.

In contrast to EtherCentral, Fabric, Onchain DNA supports multiple digital assets at the bottom of the system. Users can create their own asset types directly on the chain and use smart contracts to control its distribution and trading logic. For the vast majority of the block chain application scenarios, digital assets are essential, and the development of a set of intelligent contract-based business processes for each digital asset is very wasteful and inefficient. Therefore, by the bottom of the block chain to provide direct digital asset function is very necessary. And for those who do not need digital assets of the application scenario, the same can be based on Onchain DNA provides intelligent contract function to write any custom logic to achieve.

Onchain DNA design goals are the following:

Low-level support for multiple digital assets
Turing a complete intelligent contract and persistent state
Cross-link interoperability
The ultimate nature of the transaction
At present, many financial institutions have adopted Onchain DNA framework for product development of block chain concept verification, such as banks, brokers, payment, registration and settlement institutions. In addition, there are a number of blocks have been landing the chain of projects, such as small ants, France chain.

Antshares is a de-centralized network protocol which is used to digitize the assets and interests of the real world, and to register, issue, transfer, settle and settle financial transactions through peer-to-peer networks. It uses a community-based development model that is architecturally consistent with Onchain DNA, enabling cross-link interoperability with any onchain-based block chaining system.

Law Chain is the world's first large-scale commercial legal block chain of evidence, a bottom based on Onchain DNA block chain technology, and involved in the establishment and operation of a number of institutions to record and preserve the system of evidence. The system does not have a central control point, and once the data entry, a single institution or node can not be tampered with, so as to meet the requirements of judicial evidence.

5. Corda
Corda, which was developed by R3CEV, a New York-based block chain startup, has attracted dozens of giants, including Wells Fargo, Bank of America, Bank of New York Mellon Banking, Citibank, Deutsche Bank, HSBC, Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group, Morgan Stanley, National Australia Bank, Royal Bank of Canada, Sweden Nordic Bank (SEB), Societe Generale. From the composition of R3 members can also be seen, Corda is a specialized bank and interbank business technology architecture. Although R3 claims Corda is not a block chain, it has some important features of the block chain.

Developed by Java and Kotlin, Corda is fully dependent on Java in its capabilities, such as smart contracting, data access interfaces, and so on. Corda's design goals are:

There is no global book
The problem of multiple payments for transactions is solved by notaries
Only the participants of the transaction and the notary can see the transaction
To this end, Corda all transactions will not be broadcast to the whole network, and all nodes are direct communication, no P2P network. This has led to its network size will be limited to a smaller scale, can not form a large-scale alliance chain, the applicable business scene is relatively narrow.

Third, technical comparison
Next, we will focus on the above mentioned block chain framework of a series of technical comparison, and from a number of dimensions to discuss their differences and similarities.

1. Digital assets
Digital assets - contrast

The built-in tokens in the block chain are usually an economic incentive model and a means of preventing spam. Bitcoin is inherently and only has one built-in tokens, so all transactions in the Bitcoin system are essentially transfers unless an external protocol layer is used to add extra digital assets to the bitcoin.

EtherCentre and Onchain DNA have built-in tokens that, in addition to the economic incentives mentioned above and the prevention of spam, also provide a channel for charging functions built into the system. For example, EtherCover's smart contract runs consume GAS, and Onchain DNA's digital asset creation also consumes some tokens (optional).

Ethernet Square and Fabric do not have a built-in variety of digital asset support, but through the intelligent contract to achieve the appropriate function. The advantage of this approach is that the system design can be done very simple, and the behavior of assets can be arbitrarily specified, high degree of freedom. However, such a design will also bring a series of negative effects, such as all the asset creators had to write their own business logic, and users can not operate a unified way to own assets.

By contrast, Onchain DNA and Corda are designed to support multiple digital assets on the ground floor so that asset creators can easily create their own asset types and users can manage all their assets in the same client. For business scenarios where logic is more complex, they can also leverage smart contracts to enhance the functionality of an asset or create an asset-independent business logic.

2. Account System
Account

UTXO (Unspent Transaction Output) is a mechanism whereby each digital currency is registered under the ownership of an account. A digital currency has two states, either unspent or spent. When a digital currency is to be used, its status is marked as spent and a new digital currency is created to register its ownership under the new account. In this process, the digital money marked as spent is called the input of the transaction, and the new digital currency created is called the output of the transaction. In a transaction, it can contain multiple inputs and multiple Output, but the sum of the inputs must be equal to the sum of the outputs. To calculate the balance of an account, simply add all the denominations of all the digital currencies registered under that account.

Bitcoin and Corda use UTXO such an account mechanism, and Ethernet Square uses a more intuitive balance mechanism: each account has a state, the state directly records the current balance of the account, the transfer logic is from a Account minus part of the amount, and in another account with the appropriate amount, minus the part and the part must be equal. Onchain DNA is compatible with both modes on the account mechanism.

So UTXO mode and balance mode, what is the difference? UTXO biggest advantage is that UTXO-based transactions can be verified in parallel and any sort, because all of the UTXO are not associated between the block chain of the future expansion of a great help, and balance-based design The advantages of balance design is very simple and intuitive design, easy to program implementation, especially in the smart contract, it is very difficult to deal with the state of UTXO. This is why the intelligent contract as the main function of the square to choose the balance of the design of the reasons, and Bitcoin, Onchain DNA, Corda these digital assets as the core architecture is more inclined to UTXO design.

The reason for identity authentication, Bitcoin, and EtherFace's basic lack of identity authentication is simple, since both are designed to emphasize privacy and anonymity, while opposed to regulation and centralization, and identity authentication is bound to introduce a number of centers or Weaken the central body.
Fabric, Onchain DNA and Corda have opted for digital certificates to authenticate user identities because they all have design goals that apply to existing financial systems, which must be considered for regulation and regulation, In addition to the existing financial system has a wide range of digital certificate program, so that it can and block chain system for rapid integration.

3. Consensus mechanism
Consensus mechanism

Consensus mechanism is the core of distributed system algorithm, because the distributed system data scattered in the various participating nodes, these scattered data must be consistent through an algorithm, otherwise the system will not work properly. Unlike traditional distributed systems, the block chain is a decentralized system and may carry a large number of financial assets, so it may face a large number of Byzantine failures rather than general failures, while the centralized distributed system There is little Byzantine failure. Therefore, the block chain consensus mechanism and the traditional distributed system there is a big difference.

Bitcoin and EtherCare use a Proof-of-Work mechanism to ensure consistency of the data. Workload proof is also a tokens dispatch mechanism that encourages nodes to participate in the construction of a block by means of an economic incentive. The node needs to enumerate a random number to construct a block to make it meet the specified difficulty requirements , Once the block chain forked, honest node will choose a larger chain of work, and discard the smaller workload. By assuming that all nodes are profit-driven, choosing a chain with smaller workloads will invalidate the incentives that are available to them, so eventually all nodes will be honest so that the data for each node's block chain is consistent .

In order to maintain the block chain of workload verification mechanism, the whole network needs large-scale arithmetic support to ensure the security of the network. Otherwise, the data of the account books may be tampered with. In addition, even if the maintenance of a large computing power to protect the network, the workload of proof can not fundamentally guarantee the ultimate nature of the transaction, such as Bitcoin will often produce isolated blocks (Orphaned Block), and included in the isolated block transactions It may be revoked. Therefore, bitcoin usually requires the user to wait for six blocks of confirmation, that is, about 1 hour time to an acceptable probability that the transaction has been finalized, and this probability is not final - you never Know whether there is a secret far more than the entire network of the huge forces are trying to revoke the previous transaction. And the cost of electricity to maintain a large amount of computing power is considerable, therefore, the Ethernet Square has been designed to switch from workload proof mechanism to other consensus mechanism on the program.

Fabric and Onchain DNA are designed based on the Byzantine Fault Tolerance (Byzantine Fault Tolerance) model of the consensus mechanism. The nodes are divided into common nodes and validating peers, and only the accounting nodes participate in the construction of the blocks. The separation of such roles gives the algorithm designers the opportunity to limit the number of nodes running the consensus algorithm to A controllable scale.

The Byzantine fault-tolerant model makes assumptions and requirements for the nodes in the network: If there are f nodes in the consensus, then at least 3f + 1 nodes are needed to avoid the bifurcation of the network. In this model, each block of the construction process requires at least 2f +1 nodes to complete the participation, rather than workload proof mechanism for each node are independent of building blocks. Once a block is constructed, it can not be revoked because 2f + 1 honest accounting nodes do not sign two different blocks at the same height.

In contrast, the workload proof mechanism provides a high degree of flexibility and usability, because each node is independent of the structure of blocks and almost no other nodes, nodes can join or exit the network at any time, even if the whole network only The next node, the network or can continue to work, but it also lost the corresponding transaction of the final nature of the Byzantine fault-tolerant mechanism is the opposite, at the expense of a certain degree of flexibility and availability, the billing node must provide services online Exiting the network, once a third of the accounting nodes go down, the network becomes unavailable, but it ensures the transaction is final.

4. Intelligent contract
Smart contract

Smart contract in 1994 by cryptologist Nick Szabo (Nick Szabo) first proposed concept, almost the same age with the Internet. Smart contracts are computer programs that automatically enforce contractual terms. Smart contracts can not be applied to the real world until there is a safe and secure execution environment. Block chain because of its decentralized, transparent and other characteristics, can be born for the intelligent contract to provide a trusted execution environment. Therefore, the new block chain framework almost always built-in intelligent contract function.

Bitcoin has a built-in stack-based script execution engine that runs a unique script code for simple validation of transactions such as signature verification and multi-signature verification. The scripting language was designed to be non-Turing complete, simple enough but also sufficient to meet the various needs of money transfer.

EtherCentre is the first Turing chain to function as a primary Turing Smart contract. Users can create their own contracts on the platform of the EtherCentre, and the contents of the contract can contain any logic, including money transfer. The contract is written in a language called Solidity, a high-level language developed by the Ethernet team for smart contracting. The syntax is similar to JavaScript and is eventually compiled into bytecodes and run on EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine ). EVM provides a stack, memory, memory and other virtual hardware, and a set of dedicated instruction set, all the code in the sandbox to run. It provides the ability to call each other between contracts and even execute code that dynamically loads other contracts at runtime. This capability allows the contract to have very high flexibility, but may also make the function of the contract uncertainty.

Unlike Ethernet's own approach to developing languages ​​and virtual machines, Fabric opted to use existing container technologies to support smart contracting. Fabric's intelligent contracts can be written in any language theoretically, which is pretty friendly to the developer. They do not need to learn new languages, and can reuse existing business code and rich development libraries and use familiar development tool. In contrast, the smart contract architecture using docker has a number of problems: First, it is difficult to control the implementation of intelligent contract control process, which can not limit its function; Second, it can not run the contract consumption of computing resources accurately evaluation of;

In addition, the operation of the docker is relatively resource-intensive operation, which makes it difficult to run the contract on the mobile device; Finally, the hardware configuration of different nodes, contract development libraries, etc., are likely to contract behavior is very Strong uncertainty.

Onchain DNA uses AVM (Antshares Virtual Machine) as the underlying support for its intelligent contract function. AVM is a micro-core, platform-independent, intelligent contract execution environment that provides a set of instruction sets including stack operations, flow control, logical operations, arithmetic operations, cryptographic operations, string operations, and array operations. , Which provides only two compute stacks. However, because it allows the implementation of the block chain to create their own virtual hardware, and open to the form of an interface to the smart contract to use, so that the contract can be obtained at runtime platform-related data, persistent storage and access to the Internet. Although this may lead to uncertainty in the behavior of the contract, the implementer of the block chain can eliminate this uncertainty by writing virtual hardware. However, since there is currently no compiler and development environment with AVM, this makes it difficult to develop intelligent contracting based on AVM. Developers have to use a syntax similar to assembler to write the contract, requiring higher technology ability.

Corda's intelligent contract functions, like its own, are based on the JVM (Java Virtual Machine). Therefore, you can use any language compatible with the JVM to develop, such as Java, Kotlin and so on. However, it makes some changes to the JVM, making it run on the contract script with certainty. The development process is roughly like this: Create a class that implements the Contract interface using Java and provide a function called verify to validate the transaction, which accepts the current transaction as a parameter if the transaction Authentication fails, then throw an exception (exception), no exception means that the adoption of certification. Corda uses JPA (Java Persistence Architecture) to provide persistence, support for SQL statements and popular databases, but requires the installation of appropriate plug-ins, and because the data is only stored in the contract execution node, it can not be global persistent storage.

5. Extensibility
Extensibility

Block data structure is usually only additional records, but can not modify or delete records, it truly records the full historical data, so that the new node has the ability to complete the entire network transaction history verification, without trust Other nodes. This feature brings de-centralized convenience, but also affect the expansion of the block chain system, because the block will continue to grow until the entire hard disk. It is necessary to provide a mechanism for space recovery to cope with the growing data.

Bitcoin offers a way to use the Merkle tree to store transactional hashes. When you need to reclaim hard disk space, you simply remove the old transactions from the Merkel tree. A block header with no transaction information is only 80 bytes in size. The data generated by the bitrate block every 10 minutes is about 4.2MB per year, even if all the block headers are stored in memory.

Ethernet Square, Fabric and Onchain DNA in the Bitcoin block compression based on the state snapshot has taken a way to save hard disk space. Specifically, the root of the current block is not only the root hash of all the transactions in the current block, but also the state root in the current block and all blocks in the past. These states include all UTXOs, account balances, contract stores, and so on, so the node only needs to keep the latest blocks and complete status information.

Another important indicator of scalability is transaction throughput. There are many factors that determine the throughput, such as network structure, encryption algorithm, consensus mechanism, but the most important thing is whether the transaction can be verified in parallel. If the transaction can be verified in parallel, then the future can be simply by increasing the number of CPU to improve throughput.
Bitcoin based UTXO systems can easily validate transactions in parallel, since UTXOs are not associated with each other and can be changed independently of the order of any UTXO state, whereas balance-based account systems are not Easy to achieve parallel, because there may be multiple transactions on the same account asset operation, need some additional steps to deal with. For example, if the balance in the account is $ 10, two transactions for the account occur simultaneously, the first transaction in the account +5 yuan, and the second transaction in the account -11 yuan. Then the first transaction if the first implementation, the two can be successful, the final balance of 4 yuan; if the first implementation of the second transaction, then it will fail due to insufficient balance, only the first fair success, the final balance of 15 yuan.

While the parallel validation of the transaction plays a decisive role, whether the smart contract with the ability of state persistence. If a set of contracts are stateless, they can be executed in any order without any side effects; on the other hand, if the contract can have an effect on a set of states, the results of the contract are executed in a different order Will be different. For example, a contract that calculates interest on deposits has two sub-functions: deposit and interest settlement. Suppose there are 100 yuan in the account, the interest rate is 10%, and now also occurred two transactions, the first transaction is deposited into 100 yuan, the second transaction is the content of clearing interest. If the first transaction is executed first, then the balance of the final account is: (100 + 100) * 110 = $ 220; . Thus, intelligent contracts with stateful persistence are order-dependent, making it difficult to concurrently validate, especially if contracts can also be called among each other.

At present, Fabric does not propose any good way to solve this problem; and Corda is not the problem, because the transaction itself will not broadcast to the whole network, so long as the transaction participants and notaries can verify. Both the EtherCare and Onchain DNA methods are partitioned, whereby each contract is assigned to a different logical region. Contracts in each region are executed sequentially, and parallel execution is performed between different regions.

Etherpoint uses the first byte of the contract address as the partition basis, resulting in 256 partitions. Each contract runs in its own partition and can only invoke contracts with the same partition as itself. But this practice can not effectively solve the problem, because there are always some common underlying contract because it is widely used, while the majority of the caller's contract together in the same partition.

Onchain DNA divides contracts into functional contracts and application contracts. Function contracts are designed to provide reusable function functions that are invoked by other contracts, and must be declared stateless, which eliminates most of the contract aggregation phenomenon; and only the application contract can save their own state, so In the implementation of application contracts, the use of dynamic partition scheme: the contract was executed before, will first calculate their call tree, and call the tree with the intersection of the contract on the implementation of the same partition.

Fourth, unique characteristics
Ghost agreement
The Phantom Protocol is a refinement of the existing POW algorithm by EtherCentral, which is motivated by the low security of the current fast-identifying block chain due to the high scrap rate of the block. Because the block takes some time to spread to the whole network, if the miners A dug a block then the miners B happens to spread in the A block before the dug another block, miners B block will be abolished And did not contribute to network security. If A is a mine with 30% of the capacity of the entire network and B has 10% of the power, A will face 70% of the time to produce the risk of obsolete blocks and B in 90% Block.

By including the length of the "longest" portion of the chain, the ghost protocol addresses the first problem of reducing network security; that is, not only the parent block of one block but also the earlier An ancestor block, the descendant block of the ancestor block (what is termed the "tertiary block" in the term of the ether square) is also added to calculate which block has the greatest workload to prove. Ethertech paid 87.5% of the scrap blocks that contributed to the new block recognition as "Unclean Blocks", and incorporating them into the calculated "nephew block" would receive a 12.5% ​​bonus. The results show that the five-layer phantom with stimulus achieves more than 95% efficiency even if the block time is 15s.

2. National secret algorithm
The secret algorithm is a series of commercial cryptography algorithms developed by the National Cryptographic Administration of China, including symmetric encryption algorithm SM1, elliptic curve asymmetric encryption algorithm SM2, and hash algorithm SM3.

Often block chains use international standards such as AES, ECDSA, and SHA2 when using cryptographic algorithms. The domestic financial institutions in the selection of cryptography program, usually consider the secret algorithm.

Onchain DNA provides an optional cryptographic module that allows for the selection of different cryptographic standards for different scenarios, addressing security and policy risks.

3. Cross-chain interoperability
At present, the block chain technology is in a hundred flowers blossom, a hundred schools of thought contend, a variety of block chain have emerged, block interoperability between the chain has become a very important and urgent needs. Business users may need to migrate between different chains; the average user may need to exchange assets between different chains; the central bank's digital coinage may need to circulate across the blocks.

Onchain DNA provides a cross-chain interoperability protocol that allows users to traverse different block chains for asset transactions, contract execution, etc., and to ensure that the operation in the various blocks of the chain of transactional consistency .

4. No chain structure
As Corda stated in the white paper, it has no chain structure and transactions are not broadcast to the entire network, but only between participants in the transaction and notaries. As a result, data is accessible only to "people who need access" and avoids privacy breaches. Because there is no global chain structure, each node only stores and their own transactions, without the need to store all the transactions of the whole network, greatly saving space.

V. Summary
This paper compares and discusses the characteristics and functions of each block chain framework from several dimensions, and expounds their advantages and disadvantages in various aspects, as well as the applicability and limitations in the application field.

Bitcoin is a prototype of block chain technology, but it is very difficult to be applied to complicated business scene due to the limitations of its technical architecture, such as mining, Used for currency issuance.

Although the ether square also uses the mining form, but its ghost agreement enhanced the mining efficiency, the new consensus algorithm is also in the development, and also developed more based on the cryptography privacy protection plan, for example the ring signature mixed currency Program, very suitable for creating a decentralized autonomous organization (Decentralized Autonomous Organization).

Fabric and Onchain DNA are all enterprise-class block-chain solutions that are tailored to suit a wide range of business-specific coalition chains, including financial sector scenarios. The difference is that Fabric is oriented by intelligent contract, while Onchain DNA is guided by digital assets. The former is more suitable for developing complex custom business processes, while the latter is more suitable for building financial business system with core assets of digital assets, System, and has a strong scalability.

Corda's positioning is a "distributed database" for interbank business, which blocks the chain and chain structure, which separates the participants' business data better; but introduces the notary's role, the network structure Relatively fixed and not flexible and scalable, and with the operation of the existing banking system is not very different.

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February 13, 2017, 03:56:32 PM
 #5438

Latest Update

 First, the technical update
1. Published a small ants 2017 technology line, respectively 1) TPS upgrade; 2) the development of cross - chain interoperability agreement; 3) intelligent contract development environment and compiler; There are also technical updates related to the small-ants ecology: 1) Superconductivity 2.0; 2) Nest Ant Fund; 3) POW asset contracts; 4) Contracts and so on.
2. In the new version of light wallet, will increase the sweep two-dimensional code transfer function and support background synchronization. The application will synchronize the block data in the background, which can effectively shorten the synchronization time. At the same time, it can greatly improve the wallet's experience by combining the gesture password function and other optimization which have been completed.

Second,
community activities 3. Babbitt community plans to carry out the "opinion leader selection match" activities, the participants will be thinking of their own ideas expressed through the written record, you can get rewards and honors. The small ants will organize and sponsor the dating activities and parties of the contestants. Babbitt Ant Forum Address: http://8btc.com/antshares
4. The community recruited and formed an operational team responsible for community content, channels and forum operations , as well as search engine optimization and brand building, Entry.

Third, the market cooperation
5. small ants chain block with Meng fruit fruit VR team to explore the game + block chain technology. Based on the block chain technology of steam / TGP platform, the game props can use the small ants block chain to achieve the right, security protection and chain flow; the game itself can refer to the economic system block economic model, the game Production, distribution and circulation of domestic currency (tokens, props).
6. Cetan Manor will use the small ants, micro angels and law chain brewing first land rights ICO (to overseas local owners). Cetan Manor is committed to building China's users and rich natural resources of the world's bridges, so that users share the world, with a higher quality of life.
Zhang Zhengwen, the core developer of the little ants, published a technical article entitled "Cross-sectional analysis of mainstream block chain architecture for CTO" in the most influential and authoritative IT professional and technical journal "Programmer's Magazine". Babbitt information, enthusiastic response, hits more than 6,000 times, more cattle to join the community to discuss technology. Article link: http://www.8btc.com/blockchain-architecture

four ecological information
8. usher in a new open source community a little ant core developer Li Jianying, the future will focus on intelligent compiler development contract implementation.
9. The first ICO equity dividend was conducted by the company that started the auction of digital assets. The Academy is a subsidiary of Shenzhen Shooting Network Technology Co., Ltd., Which specializes in artist training, film and television industry training and entertainer brokerage, successfully completed ICO on December 9 last year.

Article Bounties

saw chain which so many blocks of science you are not already a little tired? Stereotyped presentation has not let you Shenmeipilao? Long-term mixed community would like to pour out their gushing out of the feelings? February 14, the small ants community officially opened block chain opinion leader trials , build a stage so that you show the literary talent , the content can be rigorous depth, you can easily witty. The first phase of the deadline March 13, reward a lot, come join it!

In order to better serve the community chain block, the small ants team has been focused on technology while always concerned about the user's voice, your voice is very important to us , especially the deep understanding of the chain of all walks of life friend.

You can interpret blocks from different perspectives and are more likely to be accepted by friends who are similar to you because concepts are difficult to interpret in solid language, You know the idea of ​​some similar people, you are looking for opinion leaders!

Is it hard to write an article? As long as you know the ant, you can write!

Concerned about technology, you can write blocks of the chain of technical principles and development methods, or based on the development of the public chain tutorial; concerned about entrepreneurship, you can write how to use the block chain from 0 to 1 entrepreneurial road and digital assets Methods and methods; concerned about the price, you can write your own analysis of the factors of price changes, do block investment experience and lessons.

Long-term point of view, you can write about the future of your block chain technology Imagine; still learning block chain, you can write down your development process or use the process to record their growth all the way while others encounter the same problem Help ... ... In short, as long as you want to write, there is always something worth writing!

Small ants need more people to understand that the block chain needs more people to understand, through all angles to explain the interpretation of the small ants, the interpretation of the block chain of the article can be more easily accepted. Will write the article to us, you can get the reward of the small ants team, general article 100 small ant coins / articles, essays 300 small ant coins / articles . (A small coin market price of 0.4-0.5 yuan) Finally, the fine article will be selected by the professional big coffee, the top three can be a mystery prize , absolutely surprise! In addition, we will organize and sponsor the participants gatherings and various activities, so that people get more opportunities for action. Event Rules: 1. candidates article should not less than 500 words or illustrations, in the form of the novel; 2. participation directly or send replies to liailinlll@outlook.com ; 3. To please indicate the contact details (telephone, QQ) and Wallet address, to facilitate the sending of awards; 4. This event once a month, will be held two, do not miss yo; 5. Opinion leader seed QQ group 422921138 , no entries do not add group. Reference: 1. It is said that the block chain allows me to become angel investors? http://t.cn/RcWjFLZ 2. Block chain how to combine with reality? Knowing is the most tricky way http://t.cn/RJSzk0M 3. Those big to the amazing brain, actually become a reality http://t.cn/RJSzbk7 4. Little ants on behalf of what actually what? Today finally understand http://t.cn/RJSzCMZ

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February 13, 2017, 08:36:59 PM
 #5439

When the actuall tech is comming out?
@boutiuqe
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February 13, 2017, 11:45:04 PM
 #5440

Wtf is dat? You try to drive a book or what?

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