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Author Topic: [ANN][CLAM] CLAMs, Proof-Of-Chain, Proof-Of-Working-Stake, a.k.a. "Clamcoin"  (Read 1150748 times)
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dooglus
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July 03, 2015, 04:30:54 AM
 #3361

Though i wonder how blocks are found at all. It sounds like calculating like with bitcoin but its not the case. I heard its random but that doesnt account for how orphaned blocks can happen then. You dont need to explain when you think i should investigate myself. Wink

It's not particularly easy to find out.

When I first discovered CLAM, I couldn't find out how staking worked, so I read the source code and summarised it like this:

you work out the "clam days" of your outputs. If you have 0.13 CLAM that hasn't moved for 3 days, you have 0.39 "clam days" (multiply value by age). I think that 0.39 is then rounded down to an integer, which might be your problem, since it will go to 0 for you. But suppose you had 13 CLAM that hadn't moved for 3 days.  That's 39 clam days. That gets multiplied by about 4000 (depending on the current difficulty). So you get 39*4000 = 156,000. Then every second your client hashes a bunch of stuff and gets an effectively random number between 0 and 4.3 billion. If the number is less than your 156,000 then you get to stake. 156,000 is about 27,500 times smaller than 4.3 billion, so you get to stake about once per 27,500 seconds (458 minutes, 7.5 hours).

So 13 CLAM that's 3 days old stakes every 7.5 hours or so. As it gets older, its chance of staking increases.

And I think your 0.13 CLAM needs to be 1/0.13 = 7.7 days old before it gets over 1 "clam day", and so even has a chance of staking, though I might be wrong on that point.

It has changed since then. There is no longer the concept of "age" - the weight of an output is simply its size (once it has matured and not been involved in a transaction for 4 hours). And the "every second" changed to "every 16 seconds". And the difficulty became about a million times easier.

But basically, every 16 seconds your client looks at each of your unspent outputs, finds the ones which are mature and haven't moved in the last 4 hours, and hashes a bunch of information together (including the current time, the txid, etc.). If the hash is smaller than the current network-wide target times the value of the output then that output gets to stake a block. Multiplying the target by the size of the output makes the ease of staking proportional to the size of the output.

It's "random" in the same way that Just-Dice rolls are random: it isn't, but it appears to be due to the nature of hashing. Imagine hashing "abc123"+current_time_in_seconds with sha256 until you got a number less than a million as the hash result. There's a particular time in the future when that will happen, but without trying it for every current_time_in_seconds you can't predict when it will happen.

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July 03, 2015, 04:37:35 AM
 #3362

When you gave the example of a solo staker vs JD finding a block at the same time then you said that JD has a 75% chance of being able to build on it's block and the solo staker I guess has the other 25%.  Is this because of the volume of clams that JD is holding?  By holding such a large amount JD has a better chance of finding the next block and orphaning sologuy's?  Or is it because of better connections to peers than solog guy?  Or some combination thereof?

JD has a 75% chance of finding the next block because JD has 75% of the total staking weight on the network. I don't know how much effect network connectivity has. JD's wallet isn't connected to many peers most of the time - and I don't know if that helps or hinders it. I figure the 16 second length of the time windows means network latency isn't a big deal for the most part but I could be wrong there.

If the solo staker has 5% of the staking weight and JD has 75% then there's 20% elsewhere. We don't know whether they'll be working on JD's block or the solo-staker's block - it would depend which of the two they saw first. So the 75% chance for JD is a minimum.

The situation is further complicated by the fact that we don't know with any accuracy what the total network staking weight is. People who are trying to stake with small amounts but failing are effectively invisible. There's no way of knowing how many CLAMs are trying to stake other than trying to infer it from the network difficulty and the rate at which blocks are found. But the difficulty swings up and down quite drastically many times per day, making such calculations tricky.

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July 03, 2015, 04:42:00 AM
Last edit: July 03, 2015, 05:09:27 AM by dooglus
 #3363

Anyways, this gist of my post is that I didn't quite see the use, and that a normal bootstrap skips over blocks that you already have. But now that I more fully understand your reasoning behind this, and how much faster this actually will process the blocks that you already have... this is amazing! This could really be useful when you stop a bootstrap midstream and need to start it backup. Or if you have been out of sync for a month or two.

I guess I see things differently. I use satellite Internet and have a hard cap on monthly data transfers. I don't want to be downloading a relatively large bootstrap.dat if I know that I only need the last 2% of it. The fact that the CLAM client will take a few minutes to skip through the 98% I already have isn't that big a deal. The wasted file transfer is. (Chopping the big bootstrap.dat into little parts happened on remote servers with proper Internet connections and didn't involve my having to upload or download anything other than a few command lines over the satellite connection).

It would be nice to have this automajically in the client, to go out and download the bootstrap that is needed to get up to date....  

The problem with that is that you're trusting me to provide the true longest chain. It adds another kind of centralisation to CLAM. Of course, the client validates every block it reads from the bootstrap file, and only adds it if it is valid, but I still don't like the idea of having the client know about my particular copy of it.

Having said that, what do people think about updating the checkpoints in the CLAM client? I bet that hasn't been done for quite a while now:

Code:
   // What makes a good checkpoint block?
    // + Is surrounded by blocks with reasonable timestamps
    //   (no blocks before with a timestamp after, none after with
    //    timestamp before)
    // + Contains no strange transactions
    //
    static MapCheckpoints mapCheckpoints =
        boost::assign::map_list_of
        ( 0,      hashGenesisBlock )
   ( 6666,  uint256("0x000002129d8a2b43509d2abb0aa24932b7af2f760e869d5952dee97d4b8ea8bf") )
        ( 10000,  uint256("0x00000de398b1ec72c393c5c54574a1e1784eb178d683e1ad0856c12fac34f603") )
        ( 29000,  uint256("0x068769a2ab0e35fc3ac31690158401b9538a7cce2a97096b22d47e50355b2e1f") )
        ( 175000,  uint256("0xec64deeb7f1295216f20ce5dbe68b0bd28189a5a644a111e722c05451d51e66c") )
        ( 250000,  uint256("0xb560c121438f630401c102767587b70cb0cc7d1e0c09114dd0b91455262aa64c") )
    ;

So we have checkpoints up to block 250k, staked on Sat Dec 13 15:14:24 2014, but nothing since. I think that means that theoretically MtGox (say) could dig up a whole load of CLAMs tomorrow, and use them to completely rewrite the chain from last December, wiping out all the transactions and blocks that have happened since.

The "reasonable timestamps" isn't an issue any more I don't think, since we no longer accept timestamps out of order.

Block 530000 was staked 5 days ago, has no weird times around it and contains only a simple staking transaction:

529995 Sat Jun 27 17:35:12 UTC 2015
529996 Sat Jun 27 17:36:00 UTC 2015
529997 Sat Jun 27 17:36:32 UTC 2015
529998 Sat Jun 27 17:36:48 UTC 2015
529999 Sat Jun 27 17:37:04 UTC 2015
530000 Sat Jun 27 17:37:20 UTC 2015
530001 Sat Jun 27 17:37:36 UTC 2015
530002 Sat Jun 27 17:39:12 UTC 2015
530003 Sat Jun 27 17:39:28 UTC 2015
530004 Sat Jun 27 17:40:00 UTC 2015
530005 Sat Jun 27 17:40:16 UTC 2015

I guess I'll add a checkpoint for it.

Edit: note those 11 timestamps just above, and how they are all exact multiples of 16 seconds apart from each other. That's the 16 second window I keep going on about. As far as CLAM staking is concerned, there is no point of time between 17:40:00 and 17:40:16. Time passes in 16 second lumps.

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July 03, 2015, 05:23:30 AM
Last edit: July 03, 2015, 07:09:20 AM by BayAreaCoins
 #3364

Appears Altquick has added CLAMS Smiley

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9D-QD_HIfjA

*cums*

Edit:  Wait can ppl sell here or are they only letting people buy...?

Double Edit:  Looks like they list everything Shapeshift does.

https://AltQuick.com/exchange/ - Trade altcoins & Bitcoin Testnet coins with real Bitcoin.
https://FreeBitcoins.com/faucet/ - Load your AltQuick exchange account with free Bitcoins every 10 minutes.
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July 03, 2015, 08:02:58 AM
 #3365

Appears Altquick has added CLAMS Smiley

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9D-QD_HIfjA

*cums*

Edit:  Wait can ppl sell here or are they only letting people buy...?

Double Edit:  Looks like they list everything Shapeshift does.

Is this the right place? https://www.altquick.co/ ?

I tried clicking 'sell' at the bottom. Got this:



It's not entirely clear what the site is. Is it only for converting between altcoins and US dollars?

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July 03, 2015, 08:17:34 AM
Last edit: July 05, 2015, 08:55:09 PM by BayAreaCoins
 #3366


I would bet they made a partnership with Shapeshifter.io or one of the guys who is involved with Shapeshift because Altquicks new coins are exactly what Shapeshift have listed.


Confirmation on my suspicion.

https://twitter.com/BayAreaCoins/status/617480509359132672

https://AltQuick.com/exchange/ - Trade altcoins & Bitcoin Testnet coins with real Bitcoin.
https://FreeBitcoins.com/faucet/ - Load your AltQuick exchange account with free Bitcoins every 10 minutes.
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July 03, 2015, 09:49:04 AM
 #3367

I really hope their update isn't done.

Yeah, you don't just leave dead links like that. I'm sure it's just an oversight.

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July 03, 2015, 10:31:09 AM
 #3368

Though i wonder how blocks are found at all. It sounds like calculating like with bitcoin but its not the case. I heard its random but that doesnt account for how orphaned blocks can happen then. You dont need to explain when you think i should investigate myself. Wink

It's not particularly easy to find out.

When I first discovered CLAM, I couldn't find out how staking worked, so I read the source code and summarised it like this:

you work out the "clam days" of your outputs. If you have 0.13 CLAM that hasn't moved for 3 days, you have 0.39 "clam days" (multiply value by age). I think that 0.39 is then rounded down to an integer, which might be your problem, since it will go to 0 for you. But suppose you had 13 CLAM that hadn't moved for 3 days.  That's 39 clam days. That gets multiplied by about 4000 (depending on the current difficulty). So you get 39*4000 = 156,000. Then every second your client hashes a bunch of stuff and gets an effectively random number between 0 and 4.3 billion. If the number is less than your 156,000 then you get to stake. 156,000 is about 27,500 times smaller than 4.3 billion, so you get to stake about once per 27,500 seconds (458 minutes, 7.5 hours).

So 13 CLAM that's 3 days old stakes every 7.5 hours or so. As it gets older, its chance of staking increases.

And I think your 0.13 CLAM needs to be 1/0.13 = 7.7 days old before it gets over 1 "clam day", and so even has a chance of staking, though I might be wrong on that point.

*lol* Sounds like a currency that rewards you for NOT using it as a currency. If i would have read it without knowing clams i would think this is a scamcoin and the creators did this to become rich. Tongue

It has changed since then. There is no longer the concept of "age" - the weight of an output is simply its size (once it has matured and not been involved in a transaction for 4 hours). And the "every second" changed to "every 16 seconds". And the difficulty became about a million times easier.

But basically, every 16 seconds your client looks at each of your unspent outputs, finds the ones which are mature and haven't moved in the last 4 hours, and hashes a bunch of information together (including the current time, the txid, etc.). If the hash is smaller than the current network-wide target times the value of the output then that output gets to stake a block. Multiplying the target by the size of the output makes the ease of staking proportional to the size of the output.

It's "random" in the same way that Just-Dice rolls are random: it isn't, but it appears to be due to the nature of hashing. Imagine hashing "abc123"+current_time_in_seconds with sha256 until you got a number less than a million as the hash result. There's a particular time in the future when that will happen, but without trying it for every current_time_in_seconds you can't predict when it will happen.

Thanks for the explaination. So the sets of parameters for each second are fixed. You cant try different hashes in one second. Or 16 seconds, now. Would one have an advantage when calculating hashes in advance? I guess so since finding hashes for the same second should be hard. I mean where do you take the second from? Your second can be some seconds after the seconds of other miners, so you would be late all time, not finding a block ever.

And you said the wallet checks each of your addresses. Does this mean you can have different addresses in your wallet and you could try out each one if it creates a correct hash?

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July 03, 2015, 11:02:17 AM
 #3369

*lol* Sounds like a currency that rewards you for NOT using it as a currency. If i would have read it without knowing clams i would think this is a scamcoin and the creators did this to become rich. Tongue

Maybe you misunderstood. Staking destroyed age, setting it back to zero. So it's not like old coins keep getting old and staking at the same time. You choose: stake, or gather age. The idea seemed to be that you could load up your wallet once a month and collect all the built up staking that had accumulated due to the age. But when staking is meant to secure the network surely you don't want people only doing it once a month. Hence the abolishment of 'age'...

Thanks for the explaination. So the sets of parameters for each second are fixed. You cant try different hashes in one second. Or 16 seconds, now. Would one have an advantage when calculating hashes in advance? I guess so since finding hashes for the same second should be hard. I mean where do you take the second from? Your second can be some seconds after the seconds of other miners, so you would be late all time, not finding a block ever.

All the inputs are fixed. You can't increase your chances of finding a 'good' hash by throwing more CPU at it. You could calculate hashes somewhat in advance (though I think some of the inputs depend on recent blocks, so not too far in advance) but hashing doesn't take long anyway. The JD staking wallet checks something like 30k outputs in 4 seconds.

src/kernel.cpp says this:

Code:
// Stake Modifier (hash modifier of proof-of-stake):
// The purpose of stake modifier is to prevent a txout (coin) owner from
// computing future proof-of-stake generated by this txout at the time
// of transaction confirmation. To meet kernel protocol, the txout
// must hash with a future stake modifier to generate the proof.
// Stake modifier consists of bits each of which is contributed from a
// selected block of a given block group in the past.
// The selection of a block is based on a hash of the block's proof-hash and
// the previous stake modifier.
// Stake modifier is recomputed at a fixed time interval instead of every
// block. This is to make it difficult for an attacker to gain control of
// additional bits in the stake modifier, even after generating a chain of
// blocks.

and this:

Code:
// ppcoin kernel protocol
// coinstake must meet hash target according to the protocol:
// kernel (input 0) must meet the formula
//     hash(nStakeModifier + txPrev.block.nTime + txPrev.offset + txPrev.nTime + txPrev.vout.n + nTime) < bnTarget * nCoinDayWeight
// this ensures that the chance of getting a coinstake is proportional to the
// amount of coin age one owns.
// The reason this hash is chosen is the following:
//   nStakeModifier: scrambles computation to make it very difficult to precompute
//                  future proof-of-stake at the time of the coin's confirmation
//   txPrev.block.nTime: prevent nodes from guessing a good timestamp to
//                       generate transaction for future advantage
//   txPrev.offset: offset of txPrev inside block, to reduce the chance of
//                  nodes generating coinstake at the same time
//   txPrev.nTime: reduce the chance of nodes generating coinstake at the same
//                 time
//   txPrev.vout.n: output number of txPrev, to reduce the chance of nodes
//                  generating coinstake at the same time
//   block/tx hash should not be used here as they can be generated in vast
//   quantities so as to generate blocks faster, degrading the system back into
//   a proof-of-work situation.

I've never tried to understand it fully, but it looks like the author went to some lengths to make it hard or impossible to game.

And you said the wallet checks each of your addresses. Does this mean you can have different addresses in your wallet and you could try out each one if it creates a correct hash?

I did? I didn't mean to. It checks each *output*. You can have multiple unspent outputs per address. JD keeps most of its value split into 30k separate outputs at a single address. The wallet loops through all the unspent outputs it controls, does a hash for each of them, trying to find one that hashes low enough to stake a block.

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July 03, 2015, 12:33:14 PM
 #3370

*lol* Sounds like a currency that rewards you for NOT using it as a currency. If i would have read it without knowing clams i would think this is a scamcoin and the creators did this to become rich. Tongue

Maybe you misunderstood. Staking destroyed age, setting it back to zero. So it's not like old coins keep getting old and staking at the same time. You choose: stake, or gather age. The idea seemed to be that you could load up your wallet once a month and collect all the built up staking that had accumulated due to the age. But when staking is meant to secure the network surely you don't want people only doing it once a month. Hence the abolishment of 'age'...

Oh, that makes more sense then.


Thanks for the explaination. So the sets of parameters for each second are fixed. You cant try different hashes in one second. Or 16 seconds, now. Would one have an advantage when calculating hashes in advance? I guess so since finding hashes for the same second should be hard. I mean where do you take the second from? Your second can be some seconds after the seconds of other miners, so you would be late all time, not finding a block ever.

All the inputs are fixed. You can't increase your chances of finding a 'good' hash by throwing more CPU at it. You could calculate hashes somewhat in advance (though I think some of the inputs depend on recent blocks, so not too far in advance) but hashing doesn't take long anyway. The JD staking wallet checks something like 30k outputs in 4 seconds.

4 Seconds? Is that needed for finding a block each time? Given a difficulty leading to 16 seconds these 4 seconds would be huge. I mean the difference to orphan blocks or get block orphaned. Or isnt it needed to calculate a block?


src/kernel.cpp says this:

Code:
// Stake Modifier (hash modifier of proof-of-stake):
// The purpose of stake modifier is to prevent a txout (coin) owner from
// computing future proof-of-stake generated by this txout at the time
// of transaction confirmation. To meet kernel protocol, the txout
// must hash with a future stake modifier to generate the proof.
// Stake modifier consists of bits each of which is contributed from a
// selected block of a given block group in the past.
// The selection of a block is based on a hash of the block's proof-hash and
// the previous stake modifier.
// Stake modifier is recomputed at a fixed time interval instead of every
// block. This is to make it difficult for an attacker to gain control of
// additional bits in the stake modifier, even after generating a chain of
// blocks.

and this:

Code:
// ppcoin kernel protocol
// coinstake must meet hash target according to the protocol:
// kernel (input 0) must meet the formula
//     hash(nStakeModifier + txPrev.block.nTime + txPrev.offset + txPrev.nTime + txPrev.vout.n + nTime) < bnTarget * nCoinDayWeight
// this ensures that the chance of getting a coinstake is proportional to the
// amount of coin age one owns.
// The reason this hash is chosen is the following:
//   nStakeModifier: scrambles computation to make it very difficult to precompute
//                  future proof-of-stake at the time of the coin's confirmation
//   txPrev.block.nTime: prevent nodes from guessing a good timestamp to
//                       generate transaction for future advantage
//   txPrev.offset: offset of txPrev inside block, to reduce the chance of
//                  nodes generating coinstake at the same time
//   txPrev.nTime: reduce the chance of nodes generating coinstake at the same
//                 time
//   txPrev.vout.n: output number of txPrev, to reduce the chance of nodes
//                  generating coinstake at the same time
//   block/tx hash should not be used here as they can be generated in vast
//   quantities so as to generate blocks faster, degrading the system back into
//   a proof-of-work situation.

I've never tried to understand it fully, but it looks like the author went to some lengths to make it hard or impossible to game.

And you said the wallet checks each of your addresses. Does this mean you can have different addresses in your wallet and you could try out each one if it creates a correct hash?

I did? I didn't mean to. It checks each *output*. You can have multiple unspent outputs per address. JD keeps most of its value split into 30k separate outputs at a single address. The wallet loops through all the unspent outputs it controls, does a hash for each of them, trying to find one that hashes low enough to stake a block.

Then i misunderstood your sentence.

So the 4 seconds are real and you meant it goes through each of that outputs (shouldnt it be inputs as long as they arent sent out?) and checks if it finds a hash? Does the output amount matter here? I mean you described rounding the amount of clams down to an integer. Does this apply to the address these outputs are on, so a big amount of clams or only to the single output? If the latter then one could get an advantage by sending the clams in amounts of 1 to a new address. The chance to find a block would be maximized?

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July 07, 2015, 01:18:08 PM
 #3371


So to effectively stake I should invest my CLAMs at Just-Dice? Is there any real downside to that?
I had thought they would constantly stake, but I only have my computer on for a few hours a day, so guess it isn't going to be worth it in the clam wallet.

I updated to the new wallet and now it says I should stake in 1 day! A big difference!

If you invest at Just-dice you will make more money, but you will be contributing to CLAM being centralized.

   I had to see how this played out. 

from 6/22 - 6/29 I staked 41.0029 clams  the starting size was about 2450

So 7 day at an average of 5.8576 per day.  Would give .00239 %

I always see .002% just staking on JD.  which would be 4.9 clams per day. 

So in my case staking alone is much better an extra 6.7 clams in 7 days.  or 350 clams a year. 

This was a small sample and your mileage may vary.  But it does show that staking solo can be done and can compete with JD. 

There were 2 orphans in the sample.   And I believe one was when I was staking a new block of 250 clams and splitting the output into blocks of 5.

I think that took 2 tries. 


Try this again. 

Dates                     Start Balance     Stakes      Avg/Day   Percentage     Orphans

6/22- 6/28 (7 days)  2456                 37.0027     5.2861     2.15%           2
6/29 -7/5                2493                 26.0005     3.7144     1.49%           2


   I'll try to keep this up for another 2 weeks, to see how variability comes into play.   My stakes have been all over the board from a low of 2 per day to 8 per day.  So over times we should see how it levels out. 



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July 07, 2015, 01:22:21 PM
Last edit: July 07, 2015, 03:46:09 PM by chilly2k
 #3372


     Today is my 1 year Clammaversary.  One year ago today I got my first Clam stake.    This was pre-lottery and pre-fixed reward.  It was for a whopping 0.00657097 clams.  

      Thanks to all for make the past year an enjoyable one, and wishing all the best for the next year.  

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July 07, 2015, 01:35:06 PM
 #3373

     Today is my 1 year Clammaversary.  One your ago today I got my first Clam stake.    This was pre-lottery and pre-fixed reward.  It was for a whopping 0.00657097 clams. 
      Thanks to all for make the past year an enjoyable one, and wishing all the best for the next year.   

Awesome work with the stake data chilly2k - we're happy to have you as part of the family Smiley

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July 07, 2015, 05:29:14 PM
 #3374

The JD staking wallet checks something like 30k outputs in 4 seconds.


I believe this means that you are missing 3 variations of hashes for each output per every 4 seconds?

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July 08, 2015, 12:06:49 AM
 #3375

The JD staking wallet checks something like 30k outputs in 4 seconds.

I believe this means that you are missing 3 variations of hashes for each output per every 4 seconds?

I don't understand what you're asking, sorry.

The CLAM protocol has a time granularity of 16 seconds. Every 16 seconds it checks each of its unspent outputs to see if it can stake, then sleeps until then next 16-second "tick" of the clock.

If it takes you more than 16 seconds to check all your unspent outputs then you'll be missing out on staking opportunities, because you'll be falling further and further behind. JD is able to do all its staking work in 4 seconds and have a 12 second snooze before the next opportunity comes up.

I don't understand the bit about "missing 3 variations of hashes". There's only one hash per output per 16 seconds.

Now if JD was able to check all of its outputs in 0.001 seconds then it would probably have a lower orphan rate, since it is kind of a race. Maybe that's what you're referring to?

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July 08, 2015, 12:07:53 AM
 #3376

Awesome work with the stake data chilly2k - we're happy to have you as part of the family Smiley

Deb calls it "the clamily".

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July 08, 2015, 12:20:18 AM
 #3377

4 Seconds? Is that needed for finding a block each time?

That's how long it takes to search for staking opportunities each 16 seconds. Most times you check you find that there isn't any such opportunity. There's only one per minute globally, so even with 100% of the staking weight you'd have around a 1 in 4 chance of any particular search being successful. When we do find a block, it will be at a random point through that 4 second search, and so on average a successful search takes 2 seconds ((0 + 4) / 2).

Given a difficulty leading to 16 seconds these 4 seconds would be huge. I mean the difference to orphan blocks or get block orphaned. Or isnt it needed to calculate a block?

I don't think you're understanding still. "Difficulty leading to 16 seconds" isn't what's happening. The difficulty adjusts how hard it is to stake a block. It adjusts such that we find around one block per minute. But blocks can only be found when the time (in seconds since some date in 1970) is a multiple of 16. That only happens every 16 seconds. That's fixed by the protocol (until the developers change the protocol again, of course), and isn't related to the difficulty.

So the 4 seconds are real and you meant it goes through each of that outputs (shouldnt it be inputs as long as they arent sent out?) and checks if it finds a hash? Does the output amount matter here? I mean you described rounding the amount of clams down to an integer. Does this apply to the address these outputs are on, so a big amount of clams or only to the single output? If the latter then one could get an advantage by sending the clams in amounts of 1 to a new address. The chance to find a block would be maximized?

It's a real 4 seconds. 4 seconds out of every 16 seconds the CPU on one core of JD's staking wallet server is pegged at 100%. They're outputs of the transactions that created them. They're not the inputs of any transactions yet, or they wouldn't be unspent. They're potential inputs, if you like, but actual outputs. When they stake they become inputs of the staking transaction.

The rounding down to an integer was related to how the age of an output affected its staking power in an older version of CLAM. I think it used to multiply the value by the age and round down to an integer. I don't think it does that rounding any more, or the multiplication by the age. These days the staking power (called the "weight") is just the same as the value in CLAMs. Each output is considered separately. It doesn't matter if you have lots of 1 CLAMs outputs on a single address, or in lots of different addresses. They each get their own individual chance of staking, with a probability proportional to their own individual value in CLAMs.

There is a benefit to splitting your outputs up into several smaller outputs. Suppose you have 1000 CLAMs. It will stake very quickly, and become 1001 CLAMs. But then it will take 8 hours to mature before it can stake again. The best you could hope for it that it will stake 3 times per day (since that's how many 8 hour maturation periods you can fit into a day).

If instead you split it into 1000 outputs of size 1, each one tries to stake independently. Each one has a 1000 times lower chance of staking than the 1000 CLAM output did, but there are 1000 of them, so it takes roughly the same time for one of them to stake, and turn from 1 CLAM to 2 CLAMs. Then, however, only the 2 CLAM output is frozen for 8 hours while it matures. The other 999 CLAMs continue trying to stake. So you have saved yourself an 8 hour wait for 99.9% of your value.

If you split your value up into *too* many outputs, you'll have too much hashing to do every 16 seconds that you won't be able to get through it all. And if you ever want to spent your outputs, having them split up into millions of tiny pieces makes the transaction which spends them very big (and so very expensive in tx fees).

So there's a tradeoff - split enough, but not too much.

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July 08, 2015, 12:36:00 AM
 #3378

The JD staking wallet checks something like 30k outputs in 4 seconds.

I believe this means that you are missing 3 variations of hashes for each output per every 4 seconds?

I don't understand what you're asking, sorry.

The CLAM protocol has a time granularity of 16 seconds. Every 16 seconds it checks each of its unspent outputs to see if it can stake, then sleeps until then next 16-second "tick" of the clock.

If it takes you more than 16 seconds to check all your unspent outputs then you'll be missing out on staking opportunities, because you'll be falling further and further behind. JD is able to do all its staking work in 4 seconds and have a 12 second snooze before the next opportunity comes up.

I don't understand the bit about "missing 3 variations of hashes". There's only one hash per output per 16 seconds.

Now if JD was able to check all of its outputs in 0.001 seconds then it would probably have a lower orphan rate, since it is kind of a race. Maybe that's what you're referring to?

Again, I may be picturing this incorrectly in my head, so let me explain my reading of the code and see if it lines up with yours.

15 seconds is the future drift limit (which is I think what you are referring to when you say time granularity?).

https://github.com/nochowderforyou/clams/blob/master/src/main.h#L74
Code:
inline int64_t FutureDriftV2(int64_t nTime) { return nTime + 15; }

and the search interval is 1 second.

https://github.com/nochowderforyou/clams/blob/master/src/main.cpp#L2603
Code:
int64_t nSearchInterval = IsProtocolV2(nBestHeight+1) ? 1 : nSearchTime - nLastCoinStakeSearchTime;

The stake hashing is iterated by the search interval not the future drift.
https://github.com/nochowderforyou/clams/blob/master/src/wallet.cpp#L2108
Code:
for (unsigned int n=0; n<min(nSearchInterval,(int64_t)nMaxStakeSearchInterval) && !fKernelFound && pindexPrev == pindexBest; n++)

The search interval appears to be one second after protocol 2, so that is why I am lead to the conclusion that if it takes 4 seconds to hash a set of outputs for one timestamp, then you have have skipped 3 timestamps that you could have tested. And of course this would only apply to very very large groups of outputs, for normal stakers this is a non issue.

I also can't find the relevant part of the code that tells it to pause looking for 16 seconds. I may be wrong, but I think there is no pause (a simple monitoring of the CPU consumption could give us a clue too). All I see is the normal minersleep parameter that is set at 500 milliseconds.

Again I could be totally wrong, and completely missing some of those parts of the code that you mention. The staking code is so all over the place that its hard to track down everything.



 

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July 08, 2015, 02:03:57 AM
 #3379

Again, I may be picturing this incorrectly in my head, so let me explain my reading of the code and see if it lines up with yours.

Good idea. When you're specific like that it's easier to pinpoint where we're talking at cross purposes.

15 seconds is the future drift limit (which is I think what you are referring to when you say time granularity?).

No, I'm talking about kernel.h:

Quote
// To decrease granularity of timestamp
// Supposed to be 2^n-1
static const int STAKE_TIMESTAMP_MASK = 15;

and main.cpp:

Quote

    if (IsProtocolV2(nBestHeight+1))
        txCoinStake.nTime &= ~STAKE_TIMESTAMP_MASK;
    int64_t nSearchTime = txCoinStake.nTime; // search to current time

That is 'AND'ing the time with binary ~1111, ie. zeroing the last 4 bits, ie. rounding down to a multiple of 16.

and the search interval is 1 second.

https://github.com/nochowderforyou/clams/blob/master/src/main.cpp#L2603
Code:
int64_t nSearchInterval = IsProtocolV2(nBestHeight+1) ? 1 : nSearchTime - nLastCoinStakeSearchTime;

No, because look at the lines before that:

Quote
   if (nSearchTime > nLastCoinStakeSearchTime)
    {
        int64_t nSearchInterval = IsProtocolV2(nBestHeight+1) ? 1 : nSearchTime - nLastCoinStakeSearchTime;

It only gets into that block if nSearchTime is greater than the last search time. And nSearchTime has already been rounded down to a multiple of 16 seconds. So it will only get into this block at most once per 16 seconds.

I also can't find the relevant part of the code that tells it to pause looking for 16 seconds.

... and now you can! Smiley

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July 08, 2015, 02:46:09 AM
 #3380

Interesting about the mask, that is the part of the code I was not processing correctly. Ok so I think we have the wait 16 seconds part of it cleared.



No, because look at the lines before that:

Quote
    if (nSearchTime > nLastCoinStakeSearchTime)
    {
        int64_t nSearchInterval = IsProtocolV2(nBestHeight+1) ? 1 : nSearchTime - nLastCoinStakeSearchTime;

It only gets into that block if nSearchTime is greater than the last search time. And nSearchTime has already been rounded down to a multiple of 16 seconds. So it will only get into this block at most once per 16 seconds.

After 16 seconds have passed this code continues, and nSearchInterval becomes 1. I still can't follow exactly where it iterates 16 different timestamps in one hashing session? I might have to add a couple of log prints with timestamps into the code to visualize this better.

Projects I Contribute To: libzerocoin | Veil | PIVX | HyperStake | Crown | SaluS
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